Phenotype

7524 results

  • Phenotype

lines over-expressing each of the Arabidopsis GA 20-oxidase cDNAs were obtained ... petioles of the 20-oxidase seedlings were approximately 50% longer and resembled controls treated with GA3

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

antisense AtGA20ox1 ... Cotyledons of these antisense GA 20-oxidase lines were darker green

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

antisense AtGA20ox3 ... Cotyledons of these antisense GA 20-oxidase lines were ... epinastic

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

lines over-expressing each of the Arabidopsis GA 20-oxidase cDNAs were obtained ... petioles of the 20-oxidase seedlings were approximately 50% longer and resembled controls treated with GA3

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

At the seedling stage, hypocotyl and petiole lengths ... one line transformed with antisense AtGA20ox3 (line A3–1) were reduced compared with the control line

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

At the seedling stage, hypocotyl and petiole lengths in two lines transformed with antisense AtGA20ox1 cDNA (lines A1–1 and A1–2 ... were reduced compared with the control line

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

lines over-expressing each of the Arabidopsis GA 20-oxidase cDNAs were obtained ... petioles of the 20-oxidase seedlings were approximately 50% longer and resembled controls treated with GA3

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

antisense AtGA20ox1 ... Cotyledons of these antisense GA 20-oxidase lines were ... epinastic

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

antisense AtGA20ox3 ... Cotyledons of these antisense GA 20-oxidase lines were darker green

Coles JP, Phillips AL, Croker SJ, García-Lepe R, Lewis MJ, Hedden P - Modification of gibberellin production and plant development in Arabidopsis by sense and antisense expression of gibberellin 20-oxidase genes

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  • Phenotype

involute leaves ... icu5

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

re-1 ... showing reticulate leaves with veins greener than their interveinal regions

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

involute leaves ... icu4-2

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

involute leaves ... icu2

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

rev ... displaying large ... rosette ... leaves

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

cue1 ... showing reticulate leaves with veins greener than their interveinal regions

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dov1 ... showing reticulate leaves with veins greener than their interveinal regions

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

rot3 ... rounded leaves

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

involute leaves ... clf-18

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

angustifolia (an ... narrow leaves

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

involute leaves ... hst

Berná G, Robles P, Micol JL - A mutational analysis of leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

The lamina of the vegetative and cauline leaves is broad ... asymmetric leaves 2 ... as2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

The lamina of the vegetative and cauline leaves is broad ... asymmetric leaves 1 ... as1

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

The lamina of the vegetative and cauline leaves is ... weakly wrinkled ... asymmetric leaves 2 ... as2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

Adult vegetative leaves are more ... asymmetric than the juvenile ones ... as1

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

loose rosette composed of leaves whose mar- gins show a more pronounced downward curl in the apical region ... as2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

the addition of GA3 to the medium anticipates the development of the wild-type Col-1 strain, producing partial phenocopies of the ser- rate mutant

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

The lamina of the vegetative and cauline leaves is ... weakly wrinkled ... asymmetric leaves 1 ... as1

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

Adult vegetative leaves are more ... asymmetric than the juvenile ones ... as2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

margins unevenly curled downwards ... as1

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

fas1-1 ... exhibit toothed leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

yi-1 ... exhibit toothed leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

Adult vegetative leaves are more lobed ... than the juvenile ones ... as1

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

display a dense rosette due to the reduced length of the petiole of the leaves ... as1

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

margins unevenly curled downwards ... as2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

serrate ... se ... narrow cotyledons

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

Adult vegetative leaves are more lobed ... than the juvenile ones ... as2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

min-1 ... exhibit toothed leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

serrate ... se ... trichomes on both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of all the vegetative leaves, in- cluding the juvenile ones

Serrano-Cartagena J, Robles P, Ponce MR, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of leaf form mutants from the Arabidopsis Information Service collection

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  • Phenotype

When we induced the expression of a rot3-2 allele, ROT3G80E, into a null-type rot3-1 parent, plants ... without longer leaf petioles

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Transgenic rot3-1 plants (expressing the wild-type ROT3 gene) had ... increases in length of ... leaf petioles

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Transgenic rot3-1 plants (expressing the wild-type ROT3 gene) had ... increases in length of leaf blades

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

There were no significant changes in leaf width in trans- genic plants

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When we induced the expression of a rot3-2 allele, ROT3G80E, into a null-type rot3-1 parent, plants had slightly enlarged leaf blades

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Transgenic rot3-1 plants (expressing the wild-type ROT3 gene) had longer leaves

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The rot3-2 allele causes enlarged leaf blades

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The rot3-2 allele causes ... short petioles

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic overexpression of the ROT3 gene affected polar elongation of leaf petioles more significantly than that of leaf blades

Kim GT, Tsukaya H, Saito Y, Uchimiya H - Changes in the shapes of leaves and flowers upon overexpression of cytochrome P450 in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... the abaxial leaf surfaces may be mosaics of abaxial and adaxial tissues (Fig. 6M,N). In some cases, the epidermal leaf surfaces of double mutants are not identical to either wild-type adaxial or wild-type abaxial surfaces, but instead resemble a mixture of characters from both

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... the adaxial palisade mesophyll of the leaves being largely similar to that of wild type

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

adaxial epidermises of ... leaves ... constitutively expressing FIL ... resembling wild-type abaxial epidermises

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

adaxial epidermises of ... leaves of plants constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... resembling wild-type abaxial epidermises

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaves of plants constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... In many cases, the adaxial epidermis of the leaves was not easily recognized as either wild-type abaxial or adaxial cell types, but rather appeared as a mixture of the two

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing FIL ... The second class of transgenic plants exhibits malformed cotyledons

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... The second class of transgenic plants exhibits ... cotyledons that are purple

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil ... leaves ... no mutant phenotype

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil ... cotyledons, no mutant phenotype

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... The adaxial leaf surfaces are relatively normal

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing FIL ... the adaxial palisade mesophyll of the leaves being largely similar to that of wild type

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... Cotyledons ... are ... occasionally bifurcated

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... leaves ... are occasionally bifurcated

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

FIL ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... first class of transgenic plants ... leaves are epinastic

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... the vasculature still retained a normal adaxial-abaxial polarity (xylem, adaxial; phloem, abaxial)

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

YAB3 ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... first class of transgenic plants ... leaves ... morphology is abnormal

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing FIL ... The second class of transgenic plants exhibits ... cotyledons that are purple

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

FIL ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... leaves ... decreased cell expansion

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... Occasionally, an ectopic SAM arises from the adaxial surface of a sinus of a bifurcated leaf

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Trumpet-shaped leaves, with an inner surface of abaxial identity and an outer surface of adaxial identity, are characteristic of phb-1d/+ heterozygotes

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... arrested leaf primordia

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... second class of transgenic plants ... cotyledons that are purple, likely due to accumulation of anthocyanins

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaves of plants constitutively expressing FIL ... In many cases, the adaxial epidermis of the leaves was not easily recognized as either wild-type abaxial or adaxial cell types, but rather appeared as a mixture of the two

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

FIL ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... first class of transgenic plants ... leaves ... morphology is abnormal

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... mesophyll appeared uniform with little evidence of polarity

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

YAB3 ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... first class of transgenic plants ... leaves are epinastic

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

YAB3 ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... first class of transgenic plants ... leaves are ... narrow

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... Despite the marked transformation of the adaxial epidermis, the leaves are not completely abaxialized since they retain some adaxial character

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... vasculature ... consists of central unbranched strands

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Semi-dominant phb-1d mutations result in adaxialization of leaves

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Organs of phb-1d homozygotes are ... radially symmetrical

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing FIL ... seedlings the SAM is disrupted

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... The second class of transgenic plants exhibits malformed cotyledons

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants constitutively expressing FIL ... arrested primordia-like structures form around the periphery of the SAM. At least some of these structures appear to be ... arrested leaf primordia as trichomes could be observed on their adaxial surfaces

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

organs of phb-1d/+ heterozygotes are mosaics of adaxial and abaxial tissues

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... leaves ... are linear

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

YAB3 ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... leaves ... decreased cell expansion

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants constitutively expressing FIL ... Despite the marked transformation of the adaxial epidermis, the leaves are not completely abaxialized since they retain some adaxial character

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Organs of phb-1d homozygotes are nearly completely adaxialized

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing FIL ... second class of transgenic plants ... cotyledons that are purple, likely due to accumulation of anthocyanins

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Homozygous yab3-1 plants do not display a phenotype different from wild-type plants

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... Cotyledons ... are linear

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

FIL ... ectopically expressed in a constitutive manner ... first class of transgenic plants ... leaves are ... narrow

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutively expressing ... YAB3 ... seedlings the SAM is disrupted

Siegfried KR, Eshed Y, Baum SF, Otsuga D, Drews GN, Bowman JL - Members of the YABBY gene family specify abaxial cell fate in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

After seed germination, we noticed that some seedlings had smaller cotyledons than normal, and they were subsequently confirmed to be ask1–1 mutant plants either by their male sterile phenotype or by PCR

Zhao D, Yang M, Solava J, Ma H - The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

During the initial analysis of the ask1–1 mutant, it was noticed that the mutant had small rosette leaves and a short stature, as compared with the wild type

Zhao D, Yang M, Solava J, Ma H - The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ask1–1 plants ... Further examination of rosette leaf epidermal cells showed that the average size of the mutant leaf cells was similar to that of the wild type

Zhao D, Yang M, Solava J, Ma H - The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

During vegetative development, rosette leaf growth was reduced in most ask1–1 plants, resulting in rosette leaves that were slightly smaller than wild-type rosette leaves

Zhao D, Yang M, Solava J, Ma H - The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In addition, abaxial epidermal cell density on the cotyledon was essentially the same between the wild-type (73 6 3 cells/mm2; n 5 15) and the ask1–1 mutant (73 6 4 cells/mm2; n 5 15)

Zhao D, Yang M, Solava J, Ma H - The ASK1 gene regulates development and interacts with the UFO gene to control floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

At 16 days after germination, both 35S::ANT and control seedlings had the same number of rosette leaves, and all leaves of 35S::ANT seedlings were the same size as corresponding control leaves (Fig. 4A). However, 35S::ANT leaves continued to grow beyond the period in which corresponding control leaves ceased to grow

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

length ... of mature ant-1 leaves were ... reduced

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ectopic ANT expression is sufficient to increase organ size

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

width ... of mature ant-1 leaves were ... reduced

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ectopic ANT expression is ... enhancing organ growth

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

there was no difference in ... the number of leaf primordia between ant-1 and control wild-type plants

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

reduction in size of ant-1 organs

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

plants highly expressed the ANT transgene ... Mass of leaves ... was increased as much as three times over those in control plants

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ectopic ANT expression ... is sufficient to increase organ ... mass

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ectopic ANT expression did not alter ... the size ... of organ primordia

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

there was no difference in the timing of leaf primordia initiation ... between ant-1 and control wild-type plants

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

increase of cell numbers ... is associated with the enlarged 35S::ANT organs

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

no obvious difference in cell size was detected in the epidermis between control and 35S::ANT organs

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ant-1 cells were much larger than normal ... epidermis ... leaves

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ant-1 organs ... decrease in cell number

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ant-1 organs had fewer cells per unit area and per organ than the wild type

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

plants highly expressed the ANT transgene and displayed multiple organ hyperplasia

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

plants highly expressed the ANT transgene ... leaves ... without altering their superficial morphology

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ant-1 cells were much larger than normal ... subdermal cell- layers of ... leaves

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

plants highly expressed the ANT transgene ... leaves ... were dramatically enlarged

Mizukami Y, Fischer RL - Plant organ size control: AINTEGUMENTA regulates growth and cell numbers during organogenesis

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense ... The cellular basis for these growth alterations was examined by measurements of cell number and cell size in petioles of T3 plants (Table ​(Table2).2). Cell number per file did not differ significantly

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense ... lines were significantly smaller than controls, averaging 71% (AS), 59% (AC), and 58% (AS35) in rosette diameter as compared with the control transgenic plants. AS35 lines showed a bimodal distribution with an extremely small-sized group (1–4 cm) and a moderately small-sized group (5–7 cm). The average rosette diameter of S lines was 18% larger than that of control lines

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... sense ... lines, rosette size became greater than that in controls after day 30, which is when the largest rosette leaves started to reach full size

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense plants had smaller rosettes

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense ... AS35 lines showed much slower growth than did the other antisense lines

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... sense ... The cellular basis for these growth alterations was examined by measurements of cell number and cell size in petioles of T3 plants (Table ​(Table2).2). Cell number per file did not differ significantly

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... sense plants were slightly larger and matured earlier than did control plants

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense plants ... cell length was significantly ... decreased

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... sense plants ... cell length was significantly increased

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense plants ... The physical basis for these growth changes was further explored in extensometer assays, which revealed a marked reduction in the extensibility of petiole cell walls

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense plants had ... aberrant leaves as compared with controls

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtEXP10 ... antisense ... plants showed variable degrees of leaf twisting and bending along the midrib and edges (Fig. ​(Fig.55 A and B). The aberrant morphology generally appeared after the fifth or sixth leaf (Fig. ​(Fig.55B) and later-stage leaves showed more severe phenotype

Cho HT, Cosgrove DJ - Altered expression of expansin modulates leaf growth and pedicel abscission in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

overexpression of LEP ... Anatomical analysis of cDNAoe transgenics revealed increased ... and/or ectopic cell divisions

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let leaves ... the leaf blade was larger

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... older plants the ... cotyledon edge looked rough

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

In a screen for leaf developmental mutants we isolated a transgenic line exhibiting a dominant leaf phenotype. Because of its conspicuous leafy petiole phenotype, which consisted of the formation of leaves without a petiole (Fig. 2A-D), this mutant was called lettuce (let). ... The penetrance of the leafy petiole phenotype was not complete in the first leaf pair (Fig. 2R). In let the petiole constituted 25% and 24% of total leaf length for the first and second rosette leaf (n=15) respectively, while all subsequently formed leaves lacked a petiole

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... No difference could be observed in the morphology of ... the primary leaves shortly after the outgrowth of the leaf primordia

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... conversion of the proximal petiole into a leaf blade

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... The cDNAoe-A transformants were most severely affected, developed only cotyledons and occasionally very small primary leaves (Fig. 7B). The hypocotyl of such plants was swollen at the base and the edge of the cotyledons was rough rather than smooth

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... The cDNAoe-B plants formed several rosette leaves but they remained small and the plants looked dwarfed

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

35SDE-LEP ... the let phenotype (leafy petioles ... was observed

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... Cotyledon development was comparable with that of wild-type plants

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... older plants the leaf ... edge looked rough

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... No difference could be observed in the morphology of ... the leaf primordia

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... The total width ... of ... the mutant leaves were comparable to that of wild type

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

No significant petiole was formed on let leaves

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... cDNAoe-B ... older plants the leaf ... edge looked rough

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... A subset of these cDNAoe-C plants had normal or slightly distorted rosette leaf formation

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... The total ... length of ... the mutant leaves were comparable to that of wild type

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

let ... No difference could be observed in the morphology of the apex

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To study the effect of constitutive overexpression of LEP on plant development, the coding region of LEP was amplified by ... PCR and cloned in a 35S overexpression cassette ... Leaves produced by cDNAoe-B plants initially showed a wild- type morphology, but upon further development exhibited gaps at the leaf edge resulting in a rough appearance. The formation of the rough cotyledon and leaf edges on cDNAoe-A and -B plants was caused by a loss of connection between ventral and dorsal blade tissue

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

overexpression of LEP ... Anatomical analysis of cDNAoe transgenics revealed increased ... and/or ectopic cell divisions

van der Graaff E, Dulk-Ras AD, Hooykaas PJ, Keller B - Activation tagging of the LEAFY PETIOLE gene affects leaf petiole development in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA1 (ICU1): This group consists of eight recessive alleles, carried by the N313, N328, N345, N346, N347, N350, N351, and N419 strains, respectively. Their mutant phenotype included ... flowers displayed a phenotype reminiscent of some apetala2 (ap2) mutants (Bowman et al. 1989; Figure 3B), and homeotic transformations of sepals into carpels and petals into stamens were observed mainly in the latest flowers

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

the Icu phenotype is caused by ... N401

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

icu5 ... morphological analysis ... by Ru¨ffer-Turner and Napp-Zinn

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

involute leaves ... N314 was named hasty-5 (hst-5

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

the Icu phenotype is caused by ... 10 being recessive

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

All adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells ... were found to be smaller in ... hst-5

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

spongy mesophyll cells ... were found to be smaller in clf-18

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA1 (ICU1): This group consists of eight recessive alleles, carried by the N313, N328, N345, N346, N347, N350, N351, and N419 strains, respectively. Their mutant phenotype included ... small rosette size

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

All adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells, palisade ... were ... to be smaller in clf-18

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

clf ... mutants showed low fertility and a thin flowering stem when compared to the wild type (data not shown

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

the Icu phenotype is caused by ... N400

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA1 (ICU1): This group consists of eight recessive alleles, carried by the N313, N328, N345, N346, N347, N350, N351, and N419 strains ... mutant phenotype included involute leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA2 (ICU2): Only one recessive allele, carried by N329 ... Apetala flowers

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

CURVATA2 (ICU2): Only one recessive allele, carried by N329 ... Involute leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

icu2 mutants showed low fertility and a thin flowering stem when compared to the wild type (data not shown

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Internal structure of ... icu5 leaves was very similar to the wild-type En-2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

22 mutants that consistently presented leaves curling toward their adaxial side, a phenotype that we named Incurvata (Icu

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

number of cells in icu2 ... may also be lower than in the wild type

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA3 (ICU3): The only mutant allele ... early ... flowering

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

the Icu phenotype is caused by ... one completely dominant (in N379

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Patches of epidermal tissue with a reduced cell size (Figure 4E), resulting in an uneven leaf surface, were consistently present as a regular feature of the Icu2 phenotype

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA3 (ICU3): The only mutant allele ... is recessive ... involute leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

spongy mesophyll cells ... were found to be smaller in ... hst-5

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA4 (ICU4): The two alleles of this locus

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

icu5 ... morphological analysis by Ru¨ffer-Turner and Napp-Zinn (1980

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA2 (ICU2): Only one recessive allele, carried by N329 ... early flowering

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Patches of epidermal tissue ... were randomly distributed on the adaxial side of the leaves ... leaves

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

number of cells in ... hst-5 mutants may also be lower than in the wild type

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Leaves of icu5 individuals ... were dark green

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Internal structure of icu4-1 ... leaves was very similar to the wild-type En-2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

All adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells ... were found to be smaller in ... icu2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

INCURVATA1 (ICU1): This group consists of eight recessive alleles, carried by the N313, N328, N345, N346, N347, N350, N351, and N419 strains, respectively. Their mutant phenotype included ... early flowering

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Leaves ... of icu5 individuals ... were ... slightly curled up

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

spongy mesophyll cells ... were found to be smaller in ... icu2

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

icu2 leaves with strong involute phenotype had clearly smaller cells in all their leaf tissues

Serrano-Cartagena J, Candela H, Robles P, Ponce MR, Pérez-Pérez JM, Piqueras P, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of incurvata mutants reveals three independent genetic operations at work in Arabidopsis leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Shoots of single pkl-15 mutants ... were slow growing

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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as1-1 pkl-15 ... On rare occasions, we detected ectopic meristems arising from the adaxial side of the leaf close to the sinus

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... curling of the leaves downward

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

leaf shape of as1-1 pkl-15 double mutants was similar to that of as1-1 single mutants

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

35S::KNAT1 leaves are ... folded upwards

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... increasing the width of the margin

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as1 as2 double mutant phenotype was indistinguishable from the as2 phenotype

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as1-1 pkl-15 double mutants ... close examination of the serrations and lobes of these leaves by SEM revealed ectopic growth of stipules in this region

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... The severity of the lobing phenotype increased gradually, such that the first formed leaves rarely had lobes but leaves that initiated later had one or more lobes

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

The serrate (se) mutant (Fig. 1B) showed strong serration of the leaves

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

about half of the leaves of as1 ... had lobes close to the base of the leaf

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as2 had lobes close to the base of the leaf

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... curling of the leaves downward

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

More files of long straight cells could be seen along the margins of ... as2 ... thus increasing the width of the margin

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... mutants showed rumpled rosette leaves

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

35S::KNAT1 leaves are lobed

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... increasing the width of the margin

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic meristems were also occasionally detected on the adaxial surface of as2-2 pkl-15 double mutants, near the sinus

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... mutants showed rumpled rosette leaves

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

Shoots of single pkl-15 mutants were mostly normal

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

double mutants between se and as1 ... showed dramatic lobing of leaves

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... The severity of the lobing phenotype increased gradually, such that the first formed leaves rarely had lobes but leaves that initiated later had one or more lobes

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

More files of long straight cells could be seen along the margins of as1 ... thus increasing the width of the margin

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

pkl-15 mutants were ... delayed in differentiation in most organs

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

pkl-15 ... leaf margins were not affected

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

35S::KNAT1 leaves are ... with ectopic stipules ... in the sinus regions

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

35S::KNAT1 leaves are ... with ectopic ... meristems in the sinus regions

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

double mutants between ... se and as2 showed dramatic lobing of leaves

Ori N, Eshed Y, Chuck G, Bowman JL, Hake S - Mechanisms that control knox gene expression in the Arabidopsis shoot

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  • Phenotype

35S::NAC1 overexpressing lines ... were bigger

Xie Q, Frugis G, Colgan D, Chua NH - Arabidopsis NAC1 transduces auxin signal downstream of TIR1 to promote lateral root development

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  • Phenotype

35S::NAC1 overexpressing lines ... dry weight increased only 1.2-fold

Xie Q, Frugis G, Colgan D, Chua NH - Arabidopsis NAC1 transduces auxin signal downstream of TIR1 to promote lateral root development

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  • Phenotype

35S::NAC1 overexpressing lines ... an increase in the total fresh weight, ranging from 1.6- to 2.6-fold

Xie Q, Frugis G, Colgan D, Chua NH - Arabidopsis NAC1 transduces auxin signal downstream of TIR1 to promote lateral root development

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  • Phenotype

35S::NAC1 overexpressing lines ... were ... with larger leaves

Xie Q, Frugis G, Colgan D, Chua NH - Arabidopsis NAC1 transduces auxin signal downstream of TIR1 to promote lateral root development

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  • Phenotype

Scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) showed that cells in older leaves of the 35S::NAC1 plants were significantly larger

Xie Q, Frugis G, Colgan D, Chua NH - Arabidopsis NAC1 transduces auxin signal downstream of TIR1 to promote lateral root development

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  • Phenotype

35S::NAC1 antisense lines ... One-week-old seedlings displayed no clear phenotype either in the aerial part

Xie Q, Frugis G, Colgan D, Chua NH - Arabidopsis NAC1 transduces auxin signal downstream of TIR1 to promote lateral root development

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  • Phenotype

Transgenic 35S-ICK1 plants were smaller than control plants

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

The fresh weight (at 3 weeks) was ... lower in a number of independ- ent 35S-ICK1 lines

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

smaller size of 35S-ICK1 plants persisted through all stages of plant development ... including leaf

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

The 35S-ICK1 plants showed profound changes in the morphology of organs such as leaves

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 ... majority displayed ... morphological ... changes

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 plants ... increasing the size of cells

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 plants ... there was a range of changes in leaf shape

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

shorter leaf petioles ... 35S-ICK1 plants

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 lines had lower fresh weight

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 ... There was no inhibition of cell expansion

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

cells of 35S-ICK1 plants were clearly larger

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

reduced cell number in 35S-ICK1 plants

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 ... In some lines, leaves were ... serrated

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

cells of 35S-ICK1 plants in all tissues examined (leaves ... were on average slightly larger

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 plants ... there was a strong inhibition of cell division

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

growth was ... inhibited by ICK1 overexpression

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 ... much smaller size of transformants

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 plants ... majority displayed ... growth ... changes

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

35S-ICK1 plants ... leaf ... reduction in size

Wang H, Zhou Y, Gilmer S, Whitwill S, Fowke LC - Expression of the plant cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor ICK1 affects cell division, plant growth and morphology

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  • Phenotype

as1-1 stm-1 ... Double-mutant vegetative shoots ... indistinguishable from ... as1 single mutants

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

as1-1 stm-1 ... Double-mutant ... leaves were indistinguishable from as1 single mutants

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In wild-type leaves the abaxial epidermis over the midvein of the leaf petiole and blade is comprised of elongated cells (Fig. 1e). In as1 there are multiple bundles of elongated cells extending from the petiole into the blade (Fig. 1f). The enhancer trap (see Methods) ET2689 marks these elongated cells (Fig. 1g) and is expressed over a much broader region in as1 extending in multiple directions from the petiole

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

magnifica ... occasionally have ectopic shoots on the adaxial surface of the petiole

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... pattern reflects a change in ... mediolateral patterning of the leaf

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Adult rosette leaves of magnifica, the first isolated mutant allele of as1 (ref. 16), have patches of callus-like growth on the leaf lamina

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... The mutant leaf lamina is subdivided into prominent outgrowths or lobes

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

asymmetric leaves1 (as1) is a classical mutation in Arabidopsis that disrupts development of cotyledons

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... Early leaves have few lobes located proximally

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... later leaves have more lobes extending distally toward the leaf tip

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

asymmetric leaves1 (as1) is a classical mutation in Arabidopsis that disrupts development of ... leaves

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... pattern reflects a change in proximodistal ... patterning of the leaf

Byrne ME, Barley R, Curtis M, Arroyo JM, Dunham M, Hudson A, Martienssen RA - Asymmetric leaves1 mediates leaf patterning and stem cell function in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing a BRI1–GFP fusion protein ... We observed a dramatic increase of BL binding activity in the membrane fractions

Wang ZY, Seto H, Fujioka S, Yoshida S, Chory J - BRI1 is a critical component of a plasma-membrane receptor for plant steroids

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  • Phenotype

Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing a BRI1–GFP fusion protein ... had longer petioles

Wang ZY, Seto H, Fujioka S, Yoshida S, Chory J - BRI1 is a critical component of a plasma-membrane receptor for plant steroids

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  • Phenotype

width/length ratio of ... epidermal ... cells of 35S::ATHB13 plants, however, decreased by 50% with an increase of sucrose from 0% to 6%

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

epidermal cells in cotyledons of 35S::ATHB13 seedlings grown on medium without sugar did not differ in ... size from those of the wild-type plants

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

High concen- trations of sucrose also caused both wild-type and 35S::ATHB13 cotyledons to bend downward

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB13 seedlings grown in vitro on standard medium containing 2% sucrose ... cotyledons of 35S::ATHB13 plants were nar- rower than those of the wild type. This difference was not observed in plants grown on the same medium but with sugar omitted ... The effect of ATHB13 expression on cotyledon shape was proportional to the sucrose concentration in the media, up to 8%

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

epidermal cells in cotyledons of 35S::ATHB13 seedlings grown on medium without sugar did not differ in shape ... from those of the wild-type plants

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

In both wild-type and 35S::ATHB13 plants, epidermal cells were somewhat longer in plants grown on media with sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB13 cells were more affected by sucrose in this aspect and their shape was nearly rectangular, with the longest axis in the length dimension, in seedlings grown on 6% sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

High concen- trations of sucrose also caused ... wild-type ... cotyledons to bend downward

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB13 plants grown on soil under long- day or short-day conditions ... rosette leaves were serrated

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

No developmental deviations from the wild type were found ... in a null mutant line of ATHB13

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

the palisade parenchyma more organized in ... wild- type ... cotyledons in plants grown on ... sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

The interstitial space was reduced in size ... in ... wild- type ... cotyledons in plants grown on ... sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

In the 35S::ATHB13 plants, the width of the epidermal cells decreased signifi- cantly with increasing concentrations of sucrose in the medium, from 124±24.3 µm at 0% to 80.5±18.2 µm at 6% sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

the true leaves of the 35S::ATHB13 plants differed from wild-type leaves in that their width decreased with increasing sucrose concentration in the medium

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

The internal anatomy of 35S::ATHB13 cotyledons was similar to that of the wild-type cotyledons

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB13 seedlings grown in vitro on standard medium containing 2% sucrose differed in cotyledon shape from wild-type seedlings

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB13 cotyledons ... The vena- tion pattern was unaffected by growth conditions

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

The interstitial space was reduced in size ... in both wild- type and 35S::ATHB13 cotyledons in plants grown on ... sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB13 ... The shape of the epidermal cells also differed in the experiment, from a characteristic jigsaw puz- zle shape of the plants grown without sucrose to a more uniform outline of plants grown on sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

the palisade parenchyma more organized in both wild- type and 35S::ATHB13 cotyledons in plants grown on ... sucrose

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

the difference in cotyledon width between wild-type and 35S::ATHB13 cotyledons is most likely caused by an inhibition of lateral cell expansion in 35S::ATHB13

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

No developmental deviations from the wild type were found among 39 independent transgenic anti- sense lines with an up to threefold reduction of the ATHB13 mRNA levels

Hanson J, Johannesson H, Engström P - Sugar-dependent alterations in cotyledon and leaf development in transgenic plants expressing the HDZhdip gene ATHB13

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  • Phenotype

The positions of the deep lobes on as2-1 rosette leaves corresponded to those of the serrations on wild-type rosette leaves, as judged from their positions relative to those of hydathodes on the respective rosette leaves

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

The venation in each as2 leaf lamina was bilaterally asymmetrical

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2-1 ... rosette leaves, differentiation of vascular elements, such as xylem ... cells, was unaffected

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2-1 ... leaf lobes were usually observed on leaves at positions higher than the second rosette leaf. As the plants matured, the proportion of leaves with lobes at each leaf position increased. However, no lobes were observed on the first and second leaves, namely, the juvenile leaves of as2-1 plants

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

the patterns of venation in as2 rosette leaves were less complex than those in wild-type rosette leaves

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... leaf surface was wavy

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

effect of the as2 mutation on venation ... In extreme cases, no midvein was obvious, and several veins of similar thickness were evident with a proximodistal orientation

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

Petioles of as2-1 ... leaves were always shorter than those of the wild type

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

development of the third leaf of as2-1. At the early stage of the development (Fig. 4Be,f,g), most of the as2- 1 leaf lamina was normal in shape but the secondary veins were being developed in an asymmetric manner

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

In the as2-1 leaf lamina, the central vascular bundle was thinner than in the wild type but several parallel bundles that were almost equivalent in thickness to the central bundle were observed with a proximodistal orientation

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 leaf often had many deep and irregularly split lobes

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

In as2-1 leaves, there was a wider vascular bundle in the center

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

cotyledons of the as2-1 mutant ... had shorter petioles

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

no significant differences between as2-1 and the wild type in terms of ... number of palisade mesophyll cells

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

In as2-1 leaves, there was a wider vascular bundle in the center, with disconnected secondary vascular bundles on both sides of the wider bundle in the transition region

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

Even at the base of the petiole (Fig. 5D,F), the as2-1 mutant still had a single but wider vascular bundle, which was surrounded by bundle sheath cells (Fig. 5D). Such wider bundles appeared to contain several subvascular arrays, each of which consisted of xylem and phloem and was surrounded by bundle sheath-like cells

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2-1 ... rosette leaves, differentiation of vascular elements, such as ... phloem cells, was unaffected

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

The complexity of venation in as2-1 cotyledons was lower than that in the wild type

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

development of the third leaf of as2-1 ... As the leaf developed into the late stage, deep asymmetric lobes were generated

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... leaf lamina was often plump and humped at its base

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

no significant differences between as2-1 and the wild type in terms of the length ... of the leaf lamina

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

cotyledons of the as2-1 mutant ... bent downwards

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

Petioles of ... as2-2 leaves were always shorter than those of the wild type

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

delayed development of the primary vein in as2

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

effect of the as2 mutation on venation ... several secondary veins failed ... to connect with the midvein in the leaf lamina and sometimes they ran separately through the petiole

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

in almost all the as2-1 primordia, the primary veins bifurcated irregularly and asymmetrically

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... veins at the leaf margin were often insufficiently interconnected or were disconnected from one another

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

no significant differences between as2-1 and the wild type in terms of the ... width of the leaf lamina

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

effect of the as2 mutation on venation ... midvein ... was thinner than the wild-type midvein even when fully matured rosette leaves were compared

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

The secondary veins of as2-1 leaves developed with bilateral asymmetry, approached the primary vein at a more acute angle than in the wild type and, in some cases, did not connect with the primary vein in the leaf lamina

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2-1 ... asymmetric lamina

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

cotyledons of the as2-1 mutant ... were curled

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... leaflet-like structures on petioles

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... leaf lobes and leaflet-like structures all had single central veins, which were usually connected to a secondary vein in the basal region of the leaf lamina or the petiole

Semiarti E, Ueno Y, Tsukaya H, Iwakawa H, Machida C, Machida Y - The ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana regulates formation of a symmetric lamina, establishment of venation and repression of meristem-related homeobox genes in leaves

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  • Phenotype

In kan ... increase in the cross-sectional ... number of cells in abaxial cell layers

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

kan ... decreasing trichome number on the adaxial surface of rosette leaves

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

kan mutant ... Leaves ... almost completely flat at maturity

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

kan mutant ... Leaves at higher nodes also emerge as in-rolled primordia

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... transformants showed amarked and usually terminal seedling phenotype

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants produced ... fused cotyledons

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

wild-type leaves of the ecotype Columbia (Col) always curl down- wards

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... transgenic seedlings ... had ... pointed cotyledons

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The first two leaves of kan mutant seedlings emerge in an upright position

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... seedlings had rectan- gular, rather than irregular, cotyledon epidermal cells

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants homozygous for kan produce abaxial trichomes starting with leaf 1 or 2. Plants heterozygous for mutant alleles of kan, including the null alleles kan-12 and kan-14, produce abaxial trichomes starting with leaf 3

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants produced normal plants or plants with a kan phenotype, but most had a variety of other abnormalities including narrow or cylindrical leaves (Fig. 4e) with few or no trichomes and no vasculature, single cotyledons, or fused cotyledons

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants produced ... cylindrical leaves ... with ... no vasculature

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... transgenic seedlings ... had elongated ... cotyledons

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the anatomy of kan- 12 SAMs ... was indistinguishable from wild type

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In kan ... decrease in the cross-sectional area of adaxial mesophyll cells

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... transgenic ... seedlings frequently lacked ... a shoot apical meristem (SAM

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

kan mutant ... not associated with a change in leaf size

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... produced no subsequent leaves

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In kan, abaxial meso- phyll cells aremore regularly shaped

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

kan ... increasing abaxial trichome number

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants produced ... leaves ... with few or no trichomes

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Transgenic cotyledons also had a reduced amount of vascular tissue

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In kan ... increase in the cross-sectional area ... of cells in abaxial cell layers

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants ... produced ... cylindrical leaves

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants ... narrow ... leaves

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The first two leaves of kan mutant seedlings ... remain cupped throughout their development

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Transgenic cotyledons also had ... abnormally thick margins, consistent with the absence of well- defined adaxial and abaxial domains

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

constitutive' CAMV 35S promoter fused to the KAN cDNA ... Several of the remaining transformants produced ... single cotyledons

Kerstetter RA, Bollman K, Taylor RA, Bomblies K, Poethig RS - KANADI regulates organ polarity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phb-1d

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phb-3d

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phv ... 3

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

Dominant ... phavoluta ... cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phv-1

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

The phb-1d mutation ... cause formation of ectopic meristems

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phb ... 5d

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phb-2d

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phv ... 4

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phb ... 4d

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

Dominant phabulosa ... cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

cause transformation of abaxial to adaxial fates in leaves ... phv ... 2

McConnell JR, Emery J, Eshed Y, Bao N, Bowman J, Barton MK - Role of PHABULOSA and PHAVOLUTA in determining radial patterning in shoots

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  • Phenotype

Epidermal leaf cells of 3-week-old gpa1 mutants are signif- icantly larger

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gpa1 leaf ... morphology ... maintained

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

increase in cell expansion ... in the gpa1 mutants

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gpa1 leaf size ... maintained

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We have found that gpa1 mutants have reduced brassinolide responsiveness

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Epidermal leaf cells of 3-week-old gpa1 mutants are signif- icantly ... fewer

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The gpa1 mutants exhibit a rotundifolia-like (16) leaf shape when grown in light

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

over- expression of GPA1 led to ... initiation of adventitious meristems

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

overexpres- sion of GPA1 leads to increased cell division by shortening G1

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

over- expression of GPA1 led to excessive cell division in meristematic regions

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

This increase in cell expansion compensates the reduction in cell division in the gpa1 mutants

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Inducible, ectopic expression of GPA1 in Arabidopsis conferred inducible, ectopic cell division in multiple organs

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gpa1 mutants displayed phenotypes that were consistent with a reduction in cell divi- sion throughout development

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gpa1 leaf ... fewer cells composing this organ

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

GPA1 under the control of a dexamethasone (dex)-inducible promoter ... induced phenotypes showed medium to severe reduction in growth (Fig. 5, B and C) that correlated with the level of GPA1 expression

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

decreased cell area in leaves overexpressing GPA1 are abundant

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

overexpres- sion of GPA1 leads to increased cell division

Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, Im KH, Sussman MR, Jones AM - Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

To ectopically overexpress DWF4, a pOD4 construct, placing the DWF4 genomic DNA under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was made ... comparison of rosette leaf size between wild type and AOD4 indicated that ... leaf blade ... are longer

Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Feldmann KA - Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

To ectopically overexpress DWF4, a pOD4 construct, placing the DWF4 genomic DNA under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was made ... In light-grown AOD4 plants, the levels of DWF4 substrates, CN and 6-OxoCN decreased to 89 and 39% of those of the wild type, respectively, suggesting that they are being used by elevated DWF4 activity. The levels of compounds upstream of CN, including 24-MC and CR, were increased 1.7- and 1.3-fold, respectively. Indicative of facilitated metabolic flow at the 22α-hydroxylation step, the levels of downstream intermediates in the late C-6 oxidation pathway in light-grown AOD4 plants increased: 3.8-fold for 6-DeoxoCT; 4.8-fold for 6-DeoxoTE; 3.5-fold for 6-DeoxoTY; and 1.4-fold for 6-DeoxoCS. The levels of intermediates in the early C-6 oxidation pathway were either decreased; 40% (TY) and 82% (CS) those of wild type; or not detected: cathasterone (CT), teasterone (TE) and BL

Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Feldmann KA - Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

To ectopically overexpress DWF4, a pOD4 construct, placing the DWF4 genomic DNA under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was made ... To learn how light affects the metabolic flow in the early and late C-6 oxidation pathways, we analyzed the endogenous levels of BRs in dark-grown seedlings of AOD4-4. The levels of CR and the two immediate precursors of the 22α-hydroxylation reaction, CN and 6-OxoCN, dropped to 72, 80 and 53% that of the wild type, respectively. Conversely, the levels of the downstream compounds were dramatically increased 57.8-fold (6-DeoxoCT), 4.7-fold (6-DeoxoTE), 8-fold (6-DeoxoTY) and 12-fold (6-DeoxoCS) in the late C-6 oxidation pathway, and 1.5-fold (typhasterol, TY) and 1.6-fold (CS) in the early C-6 oxidation pathway. Again, the BL level was lower than the detection limit in dark-grown seedlings ... Surprisingly, we were also able to detect novel 22α-hydroxylated steroids such as 22α-hydroxycampesterol (22-OHCR) (22S,24R)-22-hydroxyergost-4-en-3-one, and (22S,24R)-22-hydroxy-5α-ergostan-3-one (Figure 1 and data not shown). 22-OHCR was detected from both wild type and AOD4, with a dramatic increase in dark-grown seedlings; the level of 22-OHCR in dark-grown AOD4-4 seedlings was 488-fold greater compared to the wild type. Detection of 22 α-hydroxylated steroids implies that DWF4 has a broader range of substrate specificity than just CN and 6-OxoCN. Thus two enzymes, DWF4 and a Δ5-Δ4 isomerase, can act on CR, leading to one of two pathways: either the early C-22 hydroxylation reaction by DWF4, or the late C-22 hydroxylation reaction initiated by a Δ5-Δ4 isomerization reaction (Figure 1). Furthermore, we were able to detect another novel compound, 3-epi-6-DeoxoCT. The levels in dark-grown wild-type and AOD4-4 seedlings were 0.75 and 24 ng g−1 FW, respectively, and the levels in light-grown mature plants of wild type and AOD4-73 were 1.5 and 11 ng g−1 FW, respectively. Detection of 3-epi-6-DeoxoCT in both wild-type and AOD4 plants suggests that the 3-epimerization could occur before a conventional C-23 hydroxylation reaction

Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Feldmann KA - Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

To ectopically overexpress DWF4, a pOD4 construct, placing the DWF4 genomic DNA under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter, was made ... comparison of rosette leaf size between wild type and AOD4 indicated that petioles ... are longer

Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Feldmann KA - Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In light-grown dwf4-1 plants, the levels of the four compounds upstream of the 22α-hydroxylation step, 24-methylenecholesterol (24-MC), CR, CN and 6-oxocampestanol (6-OxoCN), were elevated 1.9-, 1.7-, 1.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, compared to the levels in the wild type (Figure 1). However, the levels of the downstream intermediates were just barely detectable: 6-deoxocathasterone (6-DeoxoCT), 6-deoxotyphasterol (6-DeoxoTY), typhasterol (TY) and 6-DeoxoCS; or were not detected in comparison to the wild type: 6-deoxoteasterone (6-DeoxoTE), castasterone (CS) and BL. The BR levels in dwf4-1 suggest that a biochemical block exists at the 22α-hydroxylation step, and the blocking is nearly complete

Choe S, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Feldmann KA - Overexpression of DWARF4 in the brassinosteroid biosynthetic pathway results in increased vegetative growth and seed yield in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... The surface of the radial cotyledons contained long rectangular cells, similar to those found on wild-type cotyledon margins

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

in moderately adaxialized phb-1d/+ plants, stipules surround the entire leaf base

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... the first 5-6 radial leaves had no trichomes at all, the later ones had trichomes around their entire circumference (Figure 4j). As trichomes form adaxially on the first 5-6 leaves and are later found on both leaf surfaces, we interpret these leaves as abaxialized while maintaining their normal heteroblasty. Transverse sections through these radial leaves revealed uniform radial anatomy, with subepidermal cells resembling the abaxial spongy mesophyll

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... radialized leaves ... had epidermal cell types normally found on the margins of wild-type leaves

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants. Cotyledons ... point upward

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

small ... cotyledons ... lesser extent by 35S::KAN3

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... The surface of the radial cotyledons contained long rectangular cells, similar to those found on wild-type cotyledon margins

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Of 30 plants carrying the 35S::KAN1 transgene ... three produced a few radialized leaves

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic expression of ... KAN3 ... no traces of vascular tissues were found within those cotyledons

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... no traces of vascular tissues were found in the cotyledons and the upper three-quarters of the hypocotyl

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... On rare occasions, the cotyledons developed normally, but completely radialized leaves were formed

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants. Cotyledons are ... cup-shaped

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... Cotyledons became completely radialized

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

small ... cotyledons ... 35S::KAN2

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... the first 5-6 radial leaves had no trichomes at all, the later ones had trichomes around their entire circumference (Figure 4j). As trichomes form adaxially on the first 5-6 leaves and are later found on both leaf surfaces, we interpret these leaves as abaxialized while maintaining their normal heteroblasty. Transverse sections through these radial leaves revealed uniform radial anatomy, with subepidermal cells resembling the abaxial spongy mesophyll

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic expression of ... KAN1 ... no traces of vascular tissues were found within those cotyledons

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

all lateral organs display gross morphological defects in kan1 kan2 plants

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

arrested meristem ... lesser extent by 35S::KAN3

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

in severely adaxialized homozygous phb-1d mutants no stipules are formed

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Of 30 plants carrying the 35S::KAN1 transgene, 23 developed ... an arrested meristem

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Of 30 plants carrying the 35S::KAN1 transgene, 23 developed only small ... cotyledons

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants ... Leaves are narrow

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

narrow cotyledons ... lesser extent by 35S::KAN3

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic expression of ... KAN1 ... Both surfaces of the narrow cotyledons were similar in appearance to the abaxial surface of wild-type cotyledons, displaying rough topology and high density of stomata

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

ectopic meristems are commonly formed at the base of the abaxial side of the phb-1d leaves

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic expression of ... KAN3 ... Both surfaces of the narrow cotyledons were similar in appearance to the abaxial surface of wild-type cotyledons, displaying rough topology and high density of stomata

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants ... Leaves ... develop ectopic outgrowths on their abaxial side only

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants, four, and sometimes up to six, stipules are formed at the base of each leaf

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... no traces of vascular tissues were found in the cotyledons and the upper three-quarters of the hypocotyl

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... radial leaves ... no vascular elements were found

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants ... Leaves are ... dark green

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

arrested meristem ... 35S::KAN2

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants. Cotyledons are narrow

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... radial leaves ... no vascular elements were found

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... radialized leaves ... had epidermal cell types normally found on the margins of wild-type leaves

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

plants mutated at the kan2 locus alone are indistinguishable from wild-type

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Of 30 plants carrying the 35S::KAN1 transgene, 23 developed only ... narrow cotyledons

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN1 ... On rare occasions, the cotyledons developed normally, but completely radialized leaves were formed

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

When the AS1 promoter drove ... KAN2 ... Cotyledons became completely radialized

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic expression of ... KAN2 ... Both surfaces of the narrow cotyledons were similar in appearance to the abaxial surface of wild-type cotyledons, displaying rough topology and high density of stomata

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

Ectopic expression of ... KAN2 ... no traces of vascular tissues were found within those cotyledons

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

narrow cotyledons ... 35S::KAN2

Eshed Y, Baum SF, Perea JV, Bowman JL - Establishment of polarity in lateral organs of plants

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  • Phenotype

er mutants have ... shortened petioles

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

the lamina in agb1 is ... ∼85% as long as that in the wild type

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

we addressed the interaction between agb1 and er in the control of leaf shape by analyzing the agb1 er double mutant. With one exception, the double mutant has ... a shorter lamina ... than does either single mutant

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

we addressed the interaction between agb1 and er in the control of leaf shape by analyzing the agb1 er double mutant. With one exception, the double mutant has a shorter petiole ... than does either single mutant

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

agb1 has petioles ∼50% as long as those in the wild type

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

the lamina in agb1 is ∼125% wider

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

er mutants have rounded leaves

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

we addressed the interaction between agb1 and er in the control of leaf shape by analyzing the agb1 er double mutant. With one exception, the double mutant has ... a wider lamina than does either single mutant

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

agb1 plants also have ... short petioles

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

agb1 plants also have rounded leaves

Lease KA, Wen J, Li J, Doke JT, Liscum E, Walker JC - A mutant Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit affects leaf, flower, and fruit development

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-1/ ucu1-1 ... being dwarf

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-1/ ucu1-1 ... hypocotyls, leaf petioles, and roots shorter than those of the wild type

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis

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  • Phenotype

ucu1 mutants ... petioles ... cell length was remarkably diminished

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-1/ ucu1-1 ... compact dark green rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis

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  • Phenotype

The ucu1 mutants display ... a constitutive photomorphogenic response was shown when grown in the dark

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis

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  • Phenotype

Insensitivity to 24-epibrassinolide is extreme in ucu1-1/ucu1-1

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The UCU1 Arabidopsis gene encodes a SHAGGY/GSK3-like kinase required for cell expansion along the proximodistal axis

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  • Phenotype

When grown at 100% humidity, soil-grown spk1-1 plants survived for longer periods of time but ... leaves of spk1-1 were very narrow

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

At 30 to 50% humidity, the spk1-1 allele caused seedling lethality of soil-grown plants, usually within 2 to 3 days after germination

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

lateral growth rate of spk1-1 cotyledons was reduced

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

At 5 DAG, the spk1-1 epidermis contained 75% more cells than the wild type

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

seedling le- thal spk1-1 allele

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1-1 ... analysis of the carbohydrate composition ... of cell walls of mutant and wild-type plants failed to reveal any signifi- cant differences

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1 epidermal cells were more rounded and lacked the small protrusions that were observed along wild-type anticlinal walls

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1-1 ... ultrastructure of cell walls of mutant and wild-type plants failed to reveal any signifi- cant differences

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1-1 ... At 8 to 10 DAG, the cotyledon continued to expand, and the defects in cell-to-cell adhesion became quite severe

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

The pavement cells of spk1-1 leaves were simple in shape; lobes were either absent or severely re- duced in size, and most cell expansion occurred along a single axis

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

Within the midblade clusters of dividing cells, neither the cell division planes nor the direction of cell ex- pansion was oriented with respect to the long axis of the leaf (Figures 2G and 2H). Therefore, the additional cells in spk1-1 cotyledons do not contribute preferentially to cotyle- don elongation. In most spk1-1 cotyledons, a subset of epidermal cells near the tip and along the perimeter expanded preferentially along the long axis of the cotyledon

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

The cytoskeletal organization of spk1 epidermal cells was altered at the onset of the mutant cell shape phenotype ... At 1 DAG ... Populations of actin filaments and microtubules were present in mutant cells. However, evenly distributed cortical microtubules were detected only faintly in mutant cells, and no pattern of alternating foci of laterally associated cortical microtubules and cortical actin filaments along the perime- ter of the anticlinal walls was observed. Instead, putative membrane-associated actin filaments were detected most often at cell corners or at the ends of elongated cells (Figure 8B). At 2 DAG, cortical microtubules were aligned in an ex- tended radial pattern and often formed evenly spaced cir- cumferential hoops around elongated cells (Figure 8D). The absence of regions of highly clustered microtubules at 2 DAG was not caused by a complete lack of lateral cross-linking activity, because pairs of radial microtubules could be found in electron micrographs taken from ultrathin paradermal sections (D.B. Szymanski, unpublished results). However, distinct foci of laterally associated microtubules were not detected along the anticlinal walls of mutant cells during early developmental stages

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

When grown at 100% humidity, soil-grown spk1-1 plants survived for longer periods of time but were dwarfed

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

When cultured on agar-based media, spk1-1 fresh weight was similar to that of the wild type after 12 days of growth, but the organ shape and trichome defects persisted

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1-1 ... The mean cell surface area was reduced 29 and 38% in 2- and 5-DAG mutant cotyledons, respectively

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1-1 ... the cotyledon ... large gaps in the epidermis explain the developmental stage–specific seedling lethality of the mutant at low humidity

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

spk1 ... In expanding mutant cells at 2 and 5 DAG, cortical actin filaments in close proximity to the plasma membrane often were detected at seemingly ran- dom positions along the perimeter of the anticlinal cell wall, but their cortical localization was not correlated with any particular cell shape

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

When grown at 100% humidity, soil-grown spk1-1 plants survived for longer periods of time but ... the cotyledons ... of spk1-1 were very narrow

Qiu JL, Jilk R, Marks MD, Szymanski DB - The Arabidopsis SPIKE1 gene is required for normal cell shape control and tissue development

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  • Phenotype

The number of palisade cells in the third leaves of S4 plants in the leaf width direction was ∼59% of the wild-type cell number

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

These anatomical results suggest that a decrease in ... cell number directly affected the leaf morphology in S4 plants

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

The epidermal cells of S4 transgenic plants were smaller than those of wild-type plants

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

AtCAP1 overexpression ... transgenic plants showed reductions of leaf blade width

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

S4 transgenic plants ... cell areas of ... palisade cells ... were ... 64.1% of the wild-type areas

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

To characterize the morphological effects of AtCAP1 overexpression in Arabidopsis plants, we used young Arabidopsis seedlings that had produced and partially expanded the first two leaves before the third rosette leaf primordia were established (defined as the appearance of a leaf 1 mm long; Kim et al., 1998) to induce the accumulation of AtCAP1 protein by Dex treatment (1 μM) for 7 days. All anatomical comparisons were performed in third rosette leaves, except as noted otherwise ... typical transgenic plant overexpressing AtCAP1 showed ... rosette leaves of reduced size

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

To characterize the morphological effects of AtCAP1 overexpression in Arabidopsis plants, we used young Arabidopsis seedlings that had produced and partially expanded the first two leaves before the third rosette leaf primordia were established (defined as the appearance of a leaf 1 mm long; Kim et al., 1998) to induce the accumulation of AtCAP1 protein by Dex treatment (1 μM) for 7 days ... All anatomical comparisons were performed in third rosette leaves, except as noted otherwise ... a typical transgenic plant overexpressing AtCAP1 showed cotyledons ... of reduced size

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

AtCAP1 overexpression ... transgenic plants showed reductions of leaf blade ... length

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

The S4 plant overexpressing AtCAP1 at high levels showed the most severe phenotype, with ... 37% reductions of leaf blade ... length

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

BY-2 cells overexpressing AtCAP1 showed loss of actin filaments

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

S4 transgenic plants ... cell areas of abaxial epidermal cells ... were 78.4 ... of the wild-type areas

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

The S4 plant overexpressing AtCAP1 at high levels showed the most severe phenotype ... The petiole lengths in such plants were reduced severely (73.8%) compared with those of wild-type plants

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

AtCAP1 overexpression ... transgenic plants showed reductions of ... petiole length

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

The S4 plant overexpressing AtCAP1 at high levels showed the most severe phenotype, with 31.9 ... reductions of leaf blade width

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

These anatomical results suggest that ... decrease in cell size ... directly affected the leaf morphology in S4 plants

Barrero RA, Umeda M, Yamamura S, Uchimiya H - Arabidopsis CAP regulates the actin cytoskeleton necessary for plant cell elongation and division

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  • Phenotype

Mutants with ... round leaves have been categorized as compact rosette (cro) mutants (Serrano-Cartagena et al. 1999

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... mutant leaves stopped growing in the longitudinal direction earlier than wild-type leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

with small ... leaves ... N356 was designated dwf1-5 (= cro2-3

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... Cells of ... leaves ... treated with BL ... were slightly, but significantly, smaller (P <0.05; t-test) than those of the control wild-type leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... defects in cell expansion ... were restored by BL-treatment to the level of control wild-type leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... difference in leaf shape was a function of significant decreases in ... cell size

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

with small ... leaves ... N352 corresponding to det2-13 (= cro1-3

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... rate of growth of each leaf, in terms of the relationship between the length and width of the leaf blade, was lower

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... Plots of leaf length vs. leaf width showed that the two-dimensional growth of leaf blades was altered

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... matured leaves ... were much smaller than those of wild-type plants

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Treatment with BL completely restored the stunted leaves of the det2-13 mutant plants to normal size

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... defects in ... cell proliferation ... were restored by BL-treatment to the level of control wild-type leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... difference in leaf shape was a function of significant decreases in ... cell number

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... mutant leaves stopped growing in the longitudinal direction earlier than wild-type leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... Plots of leaf length vs. leaf width showed that the two-dimensional growth of leaf blades was altered

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... difference in leaf shape was a function of significant decreases ... in ... cell number

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... difference in leaf shape was a function of significant decreases ... in ... cell size

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... leaves ... had smaller intercellular spaces than those of wild-type plants

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... had ... darker green color of ... leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... difference in leaf shape was a function of significant decreases in both cell size

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... rate of growth of each leaf, in terms of the relationship between the length and width of the leaf blade, was lower

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

with small ... leaves ... N416 to det2-18 (= cro1-8

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... difference in leaf shape was a function of significant decreases in ... cell number

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... Plots of leaf length vs. leaf width showed that the two-dimensional growth of leaf blades was altered

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... had ... darker green color of the mutant leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... matured leaves ... were much smaller than those of wild-type plants

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Mutants with ... round leaves ... N356 was designated dwf1-5 (= cro2-3

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

dwf1-5 ... matured leaves ... were much smaller than those of wild-type plants

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Mutants with small ... leaves have been categorized as compact rosette (cro) mutants (Serrano-Cartagena et al. 1999

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... leaves treated with BL were found to increase an average of 1.5 times in width

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... had ... darker green color of ... leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

with ... round leaves ... N352 corresponding to det2-13 (= cro1-3

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

This correlation suggests that the expansion in the width of det2 leaves as a result of BL treatment is primarily attributable to expansion of individual leaf cells

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... leaves treated with BL ... cell size increased an average of 1.3 times in width

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... leaves ... had smaller intercellular spaces than those of wild-type plants

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

However, there was no corresponding ... correlation between the average increase in the length of mutant leaves ... and ... the increase in cell length ... suggesting that the increase in the length of det2 leaves following BL treatment is dependent on both cell expansion and cell proliferation

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

size of cells in both the leaf-length and leaf-width directions of the det2-13 mutants increased following treatment with BL ... and approached the size of cells in wild-type plants (no BL treatment

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... mutant leaves stopped growing in the longitudinal direction earlier than wild-type leaves

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-18 ... leaves ... had smaller intercellular spaces than those of wild-type plants

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

det2-13 ... rate of growth of each leaf, in terms of the relationship between the length and width of the leaf blade, was lower

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

with ... round leaves ... N416 to det2-18 (= cro1-8

Nakaya M, Tsukaya H, Murakami N, Kato M - Brassinosteroids control the proliferation of leaf cells of Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

In the first rosette leaf of wild-type plants, lateral veins were visible only in the lamina (Fig. 2B, left), whereas vein branching in the as1 mutant occurs more proximally, appearing in the petiole

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as1-101 ... later-appearing rosette leaves ... displaying a heart- shaped architecture

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

the number of small veins that appear at later leaf developmental stages is reduced in ... as1 rosette ... leaves

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

as1-101 ... later-appearing rosette ... are all broad at the proximal end

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

The tracheary elements in as1 petioles are dramatically increased

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

In as1 cotyledons, however, development of lateral veins seems incomplete, with only one vascular loop

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

veins in as1 mutant petioles are much thicker than those in the wild type, mimicking the thicker lateral veins in wild-type laminae

Sun Y, Zhou Q, Zhang W, Fu Y, Huang H - ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1, an Arabidopsis gene that is involved in the control of cell differentiation in leaves

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  • Phenotype

axr1 mutant seedlings display a number of defects, including ... misshapen leaves

del Pozo JC, Dharmasiri S, Hellmann H, Walker L, Gray WM, Estelle M - AXR1-ECR1-dependent conjugation of RUB1 to the Arabidopsis Cullin AtCUL1 is required for auxin response

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  • Phenotype

On the basis of sequence similarity, Cys-215 of ECR1 likely functions as the active site cysteine in a RUB-activating enzyme involving ECR1 (del Pozo et al., 1998). Replacement of this cysteine with alanine abolished ECR1 activity in vitro (del Pozo et al., 1998). To explore the function of ECR1 in the plant, we generated transgenic lines expressing the ECR1C215A mutant gene under the control of the 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus. A total of 15 lines were recovered that displayed a dwarf phenotype in the T1 and T2 generations

del Pozo JC, Dharmasiri S, Hellmann H, Walker L, Gray WM, Estelle M - AXR1-ECR1-dependent conjugation of RUB1 to the Arabidopsis Cullin AtCUL1 is required for auxin response

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  • Phenotype

transgenic lines expressing the ECR1C215A mutant gene under the control of the 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus ... The rosettes of both transgenic lines were smaller than those of the wild type

del Pozo JC, Dharmasiri S, Hellmann H, Walker L, Gray WM, Estelle M - AXR1-ECR1-dependent conjugation of RUB1 to the Arabidopsis Cullin AtCUL1 is required for auxin response

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  • Phenotype

transgenic lines expressing the ECR1C215A mutant gene under the control of the 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus ... rosettes of both transgenic lines were ... with small curled leaves

del Pozo JC, Dharmasiri S, Hellmann H, Walker L, Gray WM, Estelle M - AXR1-ECR1-dependent conjugation of RUB1 to the Arabidopsis Cullin AtCUL1 is required for auxin response

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  • Phenotype

we crossed the ECR1C215A transgene into the axr1-12 mutant ... The axr1-12 plants carrying the transgene were extremely small with ... dark green/purplish rosette leaves

del Pozo JC, Dharmasiri S, Hellmann H, Walker L, Gray WM, Estelle M - AXR1-ECR1-dependent conjugation of RUB1 to the Arabidopsis Cullin AtCUL1 is required for auxin response

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  • Phenotype

we crossed the ECR1C215A transgene into the axr1-12 mutant ... The axr1-12 plants carrying the transgene were extremely small with tightly curled ... rosette leaves

del Pozo JC, Dharmasiri S, Hellmann H, Walker L, Gray WM, Estelle M - AXR1-ECR1-dependent conjugation of RUB1 to the Arabidopsis Cullin AtCUL1 is required for auxin response

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  • Phenotype

an ... We found no difference in numbers of MTs between wild-type (wt) and mutant plants

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

The palisade cells of the an-1 mutant were narrower

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

rot3 ... We found no difference in numbers of MTs between wild-type (wt) and mutant plants

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

an mutant ... organ-specific defect in the polarity-specific elongation of cells

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

we found that the cortical MTs in epidermal cells of the an mutant were more regularly aligned parallel to the leaf-width direction than in those of the wild type

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

there was no significant difference in the orientation of the cortical MTs between the wild type and the rot3 mutant both in longitudinal sections and in transverse sections

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

organ- specific abnormal arrangement of cortical MTs in the an mutant

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

No abnormalities in the arrangement of cortical MTs were apparent in cells of internodal stems, leaf petioles and primary roots of the an mutant

Kim GT, Shoda K, Tsuge T, Cho KH, Uchimiya H, Yokoyama R, Nishitani K, Tsukaya H - The ANGUSTIFOLIA gene of Arabidopsis, a plant CtBP gene, regulates leaf-cell expansion, the arrangement of cortical microtubules in leaf cells and expression of a gene involved in cell-wall formation

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  • Phenotype

In anmutants, the orientation of microtubules was similar to that in the wild type

Folkers U, Kirik V, Schöbinger U, Falk S, Krishnakumar S, Pollock MA, Oppenheimer DG, Day I, Reddy AS, Jürgens G, Hülskamp M - The cell morphogenesis gene ANGUSTIFOLIA encodes a CtBP/BARS-like protein and is involved in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton

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  • Phenotype

AN ... cDNA under the control of the cauliflower 35S promotor ... does not result in a new phenotype ... in a wild-type background

Folkers U, Kirik V, Schöbinger U, Falk S, Krishnakumar S, Pollock MA, Oppenheimer DG, Day I, Reddy AS, Jürgens G, Hülskamp M - The cell morphogenesis gene ANGUSTIFOLIA encodes a CtBP/BARS-like protein and is involved in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton

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  • Phenotype

anmutants ... A striking difference, however, was found for the relative microtubule densities within the cell. While wild-type trichomes showed an increased microtubule density in the tip regions during all stages before and at branch formation, microtubule density in an mutants was not changed along the basal±apical axis. This visual impres- sion was confirmed by determining the apical±basal ratios of microtubule density in wild-type and an mutant trichomes. In the wild type, the ratio was 4/1 (n = 18) and in an mutants it was 1.2/1 (n = 26). Thus, in the wild type, microtubule density is ~4 times higher in the tip region as compared with the basal region, whereas in an mutants no significant accumulation was found

Folkers U, Kirik V, Schöbinger U, Falk S, Krishnakumar S, Pollock MA, Oppenheimer DG, Day I, Reddy AS, Jürgens G, Hülskamp M - The cell morphogenesis gene ANGUSTIFOLIA encodes a CtBP/BARS-like protein and is involved in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton

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  • Phenotype

in an mutant plants expressing GFP±talin under the control of the 35S promotor (Mathur et al., 1999). The organization of the actin cytoskeleton, as visualized by the talin-mediated localization of GFP, was indistinguishable from the wild type

Folkers U, Kirik V, Schöbinger U, Falk S, Krishnakumar S, Pollock MA, Oppenheimer DG, Day I, Reddy AS, Jürgens G, Hülskamp M - The cell morphogenesis gene ANGUSTIFOLIA encodes a CtBP/BARS-like protein and is involved in the control of the microtubule cytoskeleton

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  • Phenotype

In addition to the twofold to threefold reduction in stomatal density, all three 35S-SDD1-T7–overexpressing lines exhibited the formation of arrested (at the M/GMC stage) stomata

Von Groll U, Berger D, Altmann T - The subtilisin-like serine protease SDD1 mediates cell-to-cell signaling during Arabidopsis stomatal development

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  • Phenotype

Stomatal density and differentiation were analyzed microscopically (the adaxial side of fully developed rosette leaves) in transformed plants selected for hygromycin resistance. Four independent transgenic wild-type lines and two transgenic sdd1-1 mutant lines overexpressing 35S-SDD1-T7 were selected according to this microscopic examination. The four transgenic wild-type lines exhibited a twofold to threefold reduction in stomatal density compared with the nontransgenic wild type (Figure 6) . In transgenic line sdd1-1 SDD1#4, the stomatal density was reduced to wild-type levels, and in transgenic line sdd1-1 SDD1#9, a further twofold to threefold reduction of stomatal density was observed (Figure 6

Von Groll U, Berger D, Altmann T - The subtilisin-like serine protease SDD1 mediates cell-to-cell signaling during Arabidopsis stomatal development

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  • Phenotype

cpl3 plants exhibit reduced fresh weight

Koiwa H, Barb AW, Xiong L, Li F, McCully MG, Lee BH, Sokolchik I, Zhu J, Gong Z, Reddy M, Sharkhuu A, Manabe Y, Yokoi S, Zhu JK, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM - C-terminal domain phosphatase-like family members (AtCPLs) differentially regulate Arabidopsis thaliana abiotic stress signaling, growth, and development

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  • Phenotype

cpl1 plants grow more vigorously

Koiwa H, Barb AW, Xiong L, Li F, McCully MG, Lee BH, Sokolchik I, Zhu J, Gong Z, Reddy M, Sharkhuu A, Manabe Y, Yokoi S, Zhu JK, Bressan RA, Hasegawa PM - C-terminal domain phosphatase-like family members (AtCPLs) differentially regulate Arabidopsis thaliana abiotic stress signaling, growth, and development

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  • Phenotype

dsRNA lines ... with reduced AtRbx1 RNA ... At 10 days after germination, the average length of cotyledons for the dsRNA-2 transgenic plants was 0.82 mm (± 0.05 mm, n = 20) compared with 2.48 mm (± 0.12 mm, n = 23) for cotyledons of Dex-treated wild type plants

Lechner E, Xie D, Grava S, Pigaglio E, Planchais S, Murray JA, Parmentier Y, Mutterer J, Dubreucq B, Shen WH, Genschik P - The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects

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  • Phenotype

dsRNA lines ... with reduced AtRbx1 RNA ... in three dsRNA lines (dsRNA-2, dsRNA-20, and dsRNA-33 ... strong leaf growth retardation and leaf expansion effects were observed

Lechner E, Xie D, Grava S, Pigaglio E, Planchais S, Murray JA, Parmentier Y, Mutterer J, Dubreucq B, Shen WH, Genschik P - The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects

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  • Phenotype

83% of the dsRNA lines grown for more than 30 days in the presence of Dex developed small green bushy plants (5–30%/plate), as illustrated for line dsRNA-84 (Fig. 7 C) with reduced AtRbx1 RNA and protein levels

Lechner E, Xie D, Grava S, Pigaglio E, Planchais S, Murray JA, Parmentier Y, Mutterer J, Dubreucq B, Shen WH, Genschik P - The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects

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  • Phenotype

dsRNA lines ... with reduced AtRbx1 RNA ... in three dsRNA lines (dsRNA-2, dsRNA-20, and dsRNA-33), the development of the seedlings was severely impaired (as shown for line dsRNA-2; Fig. 7, F and G). In those plants, and in contrast to the control or non-induced lines, cotyledons did not develop at all (remaining white

Lechner E, Xie D, Grava S, Pigaglio E, Planchais S, Murray JA, Parmentier Y, Mutterer J, Dubreucq B, Shen WH, Genschik P - The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects

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  • Phenotype

Whereas in the non-induced dsRNA-2 line the average area of cotyledon epidermal cells was 8259 μm2 (± 3948 μm2, n = 115), this value was reduced by a factor of 10 in the AtRbx1-silenced plants (average area of the cells was 801 μm2 (± 338 μm2, n = 115))

Lechner E, Xie D, Grava S, Pigaglio E, Planchais S, Murray JA, Parmentier Y, Mutterer J, Dubreucq B, Shen WH, Genschik P - The AtRbx1 protein is part of plant SCF complexes, and its down-regulation causes severe growth and developmental defects

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  • Phenotype

Li-5-3 ... with long petiole

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Kn-0 ... vegetative leaves appear faster

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Gr-3 ... differing in their petiole length

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

long petiole ... Gr-3

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

lanceolate leaves ... Jl-5

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Bla-1 ... showed a delayed growth that merely seems to be a consequence of the belated appearance of their first pair of leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

short petiole ... Bla-14

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Do-0 ... vegetative leaves appear faster

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Bla-3 ... showed a delayed growth that merely seems to be a consequence of the belated appearance of their first pair of leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

other accessions with delayed growth, such as ... S96

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Condara ... the leaves were produced at a lower rate

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Bla-14 ... rounded leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

other accessions with delayed growth, such as Condara

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Hl-0 ... vegetative leaves appear faster

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Bla-1 ... with long petiole

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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Kä-0 ... vegetative leaves appear faster

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Bla-2 ... showed a delayed growth that merely seems to be a consequence of the belated appearance of their first pair of leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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S96 ... the leaves were produced at a lower rate

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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Ga-0 ... differing in their petiole length

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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La-1 ... with rounded leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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  • Phenotype

Ga-0 ... short petiole

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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Hl-0 ... with lanceolate leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Serrano-Cartagena J, Micol JL - Genetic analysis of natural variations in the architecture of Arabidopsis thaliana vegetative leaves

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Certain large cell types in the wild-type show limited expansion in the hyp6 dwarf. These include ... trichomes

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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all of the organs found in the wild-type but is severely dwarfed at maturity ... rhl2

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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Young hyp6 seedlings are extremely small both in the dark and light compared to wild-type

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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hyp6 can only complete the first two rounds of endoreduplication to 8C ... reduction in the number of endocycles is ... observed

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Certain large cell types in the wild-type show limited expansion in the hyp6 dwarf. These include leaf epidermal pavement cells

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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rhl2 ... can only complete the first two rounds of endoreduplication to 8C ... reduction in the number of endocycles is ... observed

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

seedlings are extremely small ... rhl2

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

hyp6 is able to form all of the organs found in the wild-type but is severely dwarfed at maturity

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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hyp6 ... fully expanded leaves have 25–30 times fewer adaxial epidermal cells than wild-type

Sugimoto-Shirasu K, Stacey NJ, Corsar J, Roberts K, McCann MC - DNA topoisomerase VI is essential for endoreduplication in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gai mutant had larger cells in the leaf-length direction

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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wt ... under strong light ... the length ... of leaf blades were less affected by the difference in culture conditions

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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rot3 ... resulted in ... small leaf blades

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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irradiation with ... red light ... suppressed the elongation of the leaf petiole

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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ga1 ... resulted in short leaf petioles

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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elongation of leaf blades was accelerated by irradiation with ... red light

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

ga1 ... resulted in ... small leaf blades

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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The phyB mutation resulted in ... shorter leaf blade

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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irradiation with white light ... suppressed the elongation of the leaf petiole

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

gai mutant had fewer cells inboth the leaf-width and leaf-length directions

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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gai mutant ... there was no change in cell size in the leaf-width direction

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

farred light suppressed elongation of leaf blades

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

rot3 ... resulted in short leaf petioles

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

gai ... resulted in short leaf petioles

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

treatment with GA3 increased ... the length of leaf blades by 17%

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

The phyB mutation resulted in a longer petiole

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

length of epidermal cells of the acl2 mutant was 81% of that of the wt

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

treatment with GA3 ... did not affect the width of leaf blades

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

decrease in the number of cells in leaf blades of the phyB mutant was obvious only when cell files were examined in the leaf-width direction

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

acl2 ... resulted in ... small leaf blades

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

wt ... under strong light ... width of leaf blades were less affected by the difference in culture conditions

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

the length of the epidermal cells of phyB was 240% that of the wt

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

ga1 phyB leaf blades were slightly longer

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

wt leaf petioles were significantly shorter under strong light

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

farred light ... promoted elongation of leaf petioles

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

elongation of leaf blades was accelerated by irradiation with ... blue light

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

gai ... resulted in ... small leaf blades

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

irradiation with ... blue light ... suppressed the elongation of the leaf petiole

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Leaf blades in the phyB mutant were significantly smaller

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

acl2 ... resulted in short leaf petioles

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

treatment with GA3 increased the length of leaf petioles by 19%

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

elongation of leaf blades was accelerated by irradiation with white light

Tsukaya H, Kozuka T, Kim GT - Genetic control of petiole length in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

leaves were produced from the shoot apex in fil-8 stm-1 plants ... However, the morphology of leaves ... could be ... lobed

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... production of ectopic vegetative ... meristems on the adaxial surfaces of the cotyledons

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 ... did not show any vegetative abnormality

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

stm-1 homozygotes lack structures at the site typically occupied by the SAM

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants show ... elongated cotyledons

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-2 ... similar to wild-type leaves ... epidermal cell types on ... abaxial surfaces

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 ... has no effect on vegetative development

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The single-mutant alleles of ... yab3-2 do not have any visible aberrant vegetative phenotype under normal growth conditions

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ectopic meristems that we observed in fil yab3 plants arose only from the adaxial surface of the mutant leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In transgenic lines that overexpress BP (known previously as KNAT1) using the 35S promoter, ectopic meristems emerge from the sinuses of severely lobed leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 stm-1 plants ... the leaves produced later often were radialized

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... production of ectopic ... inflorescence meristems on the adaxial surfaces of ... leaf blades

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... production of ectopic ... inflorescence meristems on the adaxial surfaces of the cotyledons

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... partial loss of leaf polarity

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

transgenic lines that overexpress BP (known previously as KNAT1) using the 35S promoter ... severely lobed leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 plants appear to phenocopy plants overexpressing the KNOX homeobox genes in that ectopic meristems arise from the leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants show ... partially radialized leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants show an abnormal vegetative phenotype

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-2 ... similar to wild-type leaves ... epidermal cell types on ... adaxial ... surfaces

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 mutants ... in some cases bifurcated leaves ... gave rise to ectopic meristems at the point of bifurcation

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-3 ... indistinguishable from wild-type plants under normal growth conditions

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... double-mutant plants also produced bifurcated ... cotyledons ... near the margins

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... production of ectopic vegetative ... meristems on the adaxial surfaces of the ... leaf blades

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 ... produce leaves that are similar to wild-type leaves in shape

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We also examined the adaxial and abaxial cell types of fil-8 yab3-2 mutant leaves by scanning electron microscopy and found that the cells on the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces were clearly distinguishable, indicating that polarity had not been eliminated

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... emergence of ectopic meristems ... developed most frequently toward ... near the leaf margins

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaves were produced from the shoot apex in fil-8 stm-1 plants ... However, the morphology of leaves could be abnormal

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 ... double-mutant plants also produced bifurcated leaves ... near the margins

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 ... produce leaves that are similar to wild-type ... epidermal cell types on ... adaxial ... surfaces

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-2 ... produce leaves that are similar to wild-type leaves in shape

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... emergence of ectopic meristems can occur anywhere on the leaf blade

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

emergence of ectopic meristems ... developed most frequently toward the base

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The single-mutant alleles of fil-8 ... do not have any visible aberrant vegetative phenotype under normal growth conditions

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 ... produce leaves that are similar to wild-type leaves ... in ... size

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-2 ... indistinguishable from wild-type plants under normal growth conditions

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 ... produce leaves that are similar to wild-type leaves ... epidermal cell types on ... abaxial surfaces

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-2 single-mutant plants ... did not show any vegetative abnormality

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant ... leaves are sometimes bifurcated near the base

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil yab3 plants ... although the leaves appeared partially radialized, they retained leaf lamina, with distinguishable cell types on the leaf surfaces and trichomes only on the adaxial surface of the early rosette leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

consistent with the retention of some polarity in the leaves of fil yab3 plants

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants show ... thin ... cotyledons

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 mutants ... in some cases bifurcated ... cotyledons gave rise to ectopic meristems at the point of bifurcation

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

fil-8 yab3-2 double-mutant plants ... Ectopic inflorescence meristems arose mainly from the rosette leaves

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaves were produced from the shoot apex in fil-8 stm-1 plants ... However, the morphology of leaves could be ... butterfly-shaped

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

yab3-2 ... produce leaves that are similar to wild-type leaves in ... size

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the leaves of fil-8 yab3-2 stm-1 plants differed from those of fil-8 stm-1 plants in that they displayed the fil-8 yab3-2 phenotype

Kumaran MK, Bowman JL, Sundaresan V - YABBY polarity genes mediate the repression of KNOX homeobox genes in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

SWP function, we overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... A total of 26 lines with a similar heritable, dominant phenotype were obtained

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... Trichomes were normal in size

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

we found a recessive mutant with reduced ... leaf size ... named swp

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SWP function, we overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... cell cycle arrest in the overexpressers was less synchronized when compared with the wild type. This effect was very localized, suggesting a cell autonomous effect of the transgene

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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The mean area of median sections through the 4-day-old mutant primordia was 1628 µm2, which represented a 28% reduction when compared with the wild type (2273 µm2

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SWP function, we overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... size of all aerial organs being severely reduced in a majority of the plants

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... increase ... cell size ... was observed in the inner leaf tissues

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaves had a reduced cell number very early in development

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SWP ... overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... structure of the organs was normal

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaves ... majority of the pavement cells ... contained larger nuclei

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

The leaves produced in swp mutants ... reduced blade expansion

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

reduction in cell number observed in mature swp leaves

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SWP function, we overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... This suggested that the arrest of cell division in the transgenic leaves was less synchronous than in the wild type

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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In swp leaves, 2C, 4C and 8C cells were present; however, ∼20% of the nuclei analysed presented a 16C DNA content, reducing the proportion of 4C and 8C cells as compared with wild-type leaves (Figure 4B and C). A small 32C peak could even be detected. This showed that in swp leaves, a significant proportion of the cells went through one or even two additional rounds of endoreduplication after the arrest of mitosis

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... the maximal proliferation rates in the young primordia were comparable

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp and wild-type epidermal pavement cells revealed an increase in cell size in the mutant

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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SWP function, we overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... Epidermal pavement cells with an almost normal size were intermingled with groups of much smaller cells

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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We first determined the evolution of the stomatal index, which was used previously by De Veylder et al. (2001). This parameter was similar in swp and wild-type leaves (Figure 3E), indicating that cell differentiation proceeded normally

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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Until 8 days after sowing, the relative cell division rate in swp and wild-type plants was comparable. From day 8 until day 12, however, the values were significantly lower in swp. This indicated that, in the mutant, a significant proportion of the cells had stopped dividing

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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swp ... blades ... often displayed asymmetrical serrations

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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swp ... first leaves were often more dramatically affected

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaves ... majority of the pavement cells ... contained more DNA

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... cotyledons were slightly lanceolated

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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SEM images of the mature swp leaf surface (Figure 1C–F) and confocal microscopy of fixed and living swp primordia showed that differentiation of other morphological markers such as trichomes ... was normal in swp

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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The leaves produced in swp mutants ... showed aberrant morphologies

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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swp ... This increase also concerned the stomata (mean surface of individual guard cells, 280 µm2 in wild type and 396 µm2 in the mutant

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... When plants were grown in Petri dishes, the mutant leaves ... final cell size was very comparable

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

in swp leaves, a majority of epidermal cells stopped dividing earlier than in wild-type plants

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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swp ... significant increase (Student’s t-test, p < 0.005) of the mean cell size of ∼30% in the mutant (10 200 µm2, 100 cells measured) when compared with the wild type (6680 µm2, 101 cells measured

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... increase in final cell size

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

Since cell size in the mutant was similar to the wild type during the early phases of leaf development

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SWP ... overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... that the total number of cells per leaf was increased by ∼54%

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

seedlings homozygous for the swp mutation ... observations favoured a model in which the primordia anlagen themselves contained reduced cell numbers

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaf ... increase in final cell size

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... almost radial symmetrical finger-shaped leaves

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaf ... decrease in cell number

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

seedlings homozygous for the swp mutation are macroscopically indistinguishable from wild-type seedlings before 6 days after sowing

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

At day 8, when most of the cells in both genotypes were still proliferating, the average cell cycle durations were 25.8 and 25.6 h in wild-type and swp primordia, respectively

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

reduction of swp leaf area

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... Due to the reduced leaf blade, the boundaries between lamina and petiole were macroscopically not very distinct

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

In 20-day-old swp plants, ∼10-fold fewer cells were present than in wild-type leaves

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... Leaf shapes were variable from one individual to another at the same stage

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... reduction in the number of cells per leaf

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SWP function, we overexpressed the gene using a constitutive promoter ... cell cycle arrest in the overexpressers was less synchronized

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaves ... some of the mesophyll cells ... contained more DNA

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

SEM images of the mature swp leaf surface (Figure 1C–F) and confocal microscopy of fixed and living swp primordia showed that differentiation of other morphological markers such as ... establishment of vascular tissue, was normal in swp.

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

The quantitative analysis confirmed that the mean cell size in the leaves of the transgenic lines was reduced (Figure 9I). Nevertheless, the range of cell sizes observed in the transgenic lines was comparable with the wild type

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

The leaves produced in swp mutants were small

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

At 6 days after sowing, a reduction of ∼40% in leaf area was already observed in the mutant

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp leaves ... some of the mesophyll cells contained larger nuclei

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

At 6 days after sowing, the mutant leaves already showed a 2- to 4-fold reduction in cell number

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... suggesting that primordia cells were able to differentiate normally

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... The similar duration of the cell cycle in mutant and wild type

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... smaller leaf size

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... cotyledons were ... somewhat darker green

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... Trichomes ... sometimes even showed reduced branching

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp ... When plants were grown in Petri dishes, the mutant leaves were clearly smaller than the wild-type leaves

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

swp mutants ... there was no obvious defect in organ polarity

Autran D, Jonak C, Belcram K, Beemster GT, Kronenberger J, Grandjean O, Inzé D, Traas J - Cell numbers and leaf development in Arabidopsis: a functional analysis of the STRUWWELPETER gene

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  • Phenotype

The first indication of the bop1-1 phenotype was recognized in 3-day-old seedlings (Fig. 5D,F). At this stage, most of the cells in the petiole of wild-type cotyledon had already differentiated (Fig. 5C,E). In contrast, the petiole of mutant cotyledon had clusters of young cells on the adaxial side (Fig. 5D,F). The differentiation status of these clustered cells was evident from the large nucleus and a lack of large vacuoles, which indicated that the cells were relatively undifferentiated

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... The leaves of a 37-day- old mutant were still green and viable, whereas wild-type leaves had already turned yellow

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... The petiole region of the early rosette leaves of mutants frequently fused with the basal part of the petiole of a cotyledon or adjacent leaf

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 as1-1 ... double mutants produced ... fasciated leaf petioles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 as1-1 ... produced numerous leaflet-like structures along the fasciated leaf petioles (Fig. 9C,D,G,H). On the primary leaflet outgrowths of the double mutant, we observed smaller second- and third-degree leaflet outgrowths that made supercompound leaves

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... The wild-type petiole has a single, round vascular system in its centre (Fig. 3A,C,E). In contrast, the vascular system of the mutant leaves had a flattened shape (Fig. 3B,D,F). The phloem- and xylem-like tissues were located on the abaxial and adaxial sides of the leaf, respectively (Fig. 3F), which is the arrangement in wild-type petioles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1- 1 stm-1 double mutant, rescued leaves ... were lobed

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... Ectopic organogenesis was also observed on the first rosette leaf of the mutant

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 as2-2 double mutants produced ... fasciated leaf petioles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1- 1 stm-1 double mutant, rescued leaves did not fully expand

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... extensive lobe formation, on both sides of the petiole midvein

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... In the cotyledons and the first two leaves of the mutant, an extended, adventitious, petiole-like organ grew out from the base of the original petiole

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The ectopic organs that formed on the rosette leaves of the bop1-1 plants also developed extensively reticulated venation systems (Fig. 4D), which were similar to those seen in the blades of wild-type rosette leaves (Fig. 4B). However, unlike the wild-type leaves, the midvein systems in the proximal region of the mutant rosette leaves revealed an extensive vasculature with numerous parallel vein elements. The secondary lateral veins branched from the ectopic midveins to the ectopic outgrowths on the bop1-1 leaves

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... presence of ectopic organ outgrowths along the leaf petioles of rosette leaves

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The abaxial side of the first rosette leaf of bop1-1 also developed ectopic outgrowths (Fig. 2F). However, the shapes of these ectopic outgrowths differed from those on the adaxial side. They never developed into blade-like structures, but remained as small, unidentifiable outgrowths

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... ectopic blade phenotype

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 as2-2 double mutants produced numerous leaflet-like structures along the fasciated leaf petioles (Fig. 9C,D,G,H). On the primary leaflet outgrowths of the double mutant, we observed smaller second- and third-degree leaflet outgrowths that made supercompound leaves

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

adaxial side of the basal regions of the petioles of bop1-1 cotyledons showed several outgrowths

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... leaves of the mutant exhibited extended longevity

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... The newly formed, ectopic, adventitious petioles at the base of the original petioles of the cotyledons and the first two leaves of bop1-1 (Fig. 1B,E,F, arrowheads) had features that were intermediate between stems and petioles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The cotyledons of bop1-1 plants had a typical venation pattern of wild-type cotyledons in the distal regions where no ectopic organogenesis was observed (Fig. 4C). The ectopic organ that formed on the proximal part of the mutant cotyledon developed a reticulated venation pattern that resembled that of wild-type leaf blades. However, the venation pattern was intermediate between those of cotyledons and rosette leaves of the wild type in terms of complexity: the ectopic organ in the mutant cotyledons had more complex venation than the wild-type cotyledon and less complex venation than wild-type rosette leaves

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 ... The formation of secondary outgrowths on the primary ectopic outgrowths was observed frequently (Fig. 3D, arrows). Interestingly, we noticed that the development of ectopic outgrowths was associated with the formation of a new structure that resembled a vascular system (Fig. 3B,D, arrowheads

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 bp-1 double mutant exhibited a lobed morphology characteristic for bop1-1

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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bop1-1 as1-1 ... double mutants produced numerous leaflet-like structures along the fasciated leaf petioles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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bop1-1 ... The ectopic organs (Fig. 2D, arrows) that formed on the adaxial side of the rosette leaf resembled leaf blades with flattened structures. These ectopic outgrowths appeared to possess dorsoventrality, with differential growth between the two surfaces of the blade-like structures, and trichome development on only one of the two surfaces

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 as2-2 double mutants produced numerous leaflet-like structures along the fasciated leaf petioles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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bop1-1 ... development of ectopic organs was also observed on the ... basal regions of cotyledons

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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bop1-1 ... flattened structure appeared to be due to the parallel development of many vascular bundles

Ha CM, Kim GT, Kim BC, Jun JH, Soh MS, Ueno Y, Machida Y, Tsukaya H, Nam HG - The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE 1 gene controls leaf pattern formation through the modulation of meristematic activity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

pnh; FIL::PNH ... In the wild type, the SAM develops between the two cotyledon axes. Similarly, ectopic growths formed between the two halves of 33.0% of fused double cotyledons (classes B to E; n = 488 half-seedlings) (Figure 5G). Ectopic growths were found only along the fusion zone, at the distal tip, petiole, blade, or a combination of these sites (Figures 7A to 7D) . A greater incidence of ectopic growth formation was seen in cotyledons that had two distinct lobes (classes C to E) than in those with only an indentation (class B). On separate (class F) cotyledons, the fusion zone was in virtually the same location as the normal site of adventitious SAM formation in pnh seedlings (Figures 7E and 7F); thus, these two types of SAMs could not be distinguished, and ectopic growth formation was not scored for class-F cotyledons. No ectopic growths were observed on normal (class A) cotyledons ... Ectopic growths fell into two groups: differentiated outgrowths, which were composed of large differentiated cells, and SAMs, which were defined by the production of at least one leaf-like structure such as a regular pnh SAM would produce. In 2-week-old seedlings, 56.2% of ectopic growths were SAMs (n = 73 half-seedlings), whereas in 3-week-old seedlings, 90.7% of ectopic growths were SAMs (n = 108 half-seedlings). Combined with the observation that SAMs often emerged from differentiated outgrowths, these data suggest that differentiated outgrowths typically lead to SAM formation. Ectopic SAMs occasionally were observed to produce full rosettes and inflorescences; ectopic root growth never was observed

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

pnh; FIL::PNH embryos ... By the early torpedo stage, evidence of cotyledon doubling emerged as a flattening (Figure 6G) or indentation (Figure 6I) of the distal tip of the cotyledon primordium compared with the wild type ... Together, these observations suggest that each pnh; FIL::PNH embryo originally initiated two cotyledon primordia, as does the wild type, but many of these primordia proceeded to initiate two additional cotyledon primordia

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

Plants carrying the 35S::PNH transgene had round leaf blades

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

PNH; FIL::PNH plants exhibited upwardly curled blades in rosette leaves ... cauline leaves

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

PNH; FIL::PNH plants exhibited upwardly curled blades in rosette leaves ... The involute morphology affected leaves from the early stages of blade outgrowth, at approximately the P8 or P9 stage, with the P1 leaf being defined as the youngest primordium that is morphologically distinguishable on the flanks of the SAM. The curling phenotype was seen until just before full expansion of the leaf. At this point, the blades corrected the curling until they nearly resembled wild-type blades (Figures 4I to 4L). This correction likely is permitted by a cessation of ectopic PNH expression in maturing leaves, because plants expressing a FIL::GUS transgene showed GUS activity in young but not maturing leaves ... When the FIL::PNH transgene was expressed in a pnh mutant background, none of the pnh defects (SAM and axillary meristem formation, floral organ morphology, and number) was rescued. The inability of abaxial PNH to rescue the mutant phenotype shows that normal localization of the PNH transcript is critical. Surprisingly, unlike PNH; FIL::PNH leaves, pnh; FIL::PNH leaves did not curl. Thus, expression of PNH in its normal domain is essential for the transgene to cause leaf curling

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

pnh; FIL::PNH ... carrying a hydathode:: GUS marker gene ... Double cotyledons had two foci of stain, indicating that this structure had been duplicated

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

Plants carrying the 35S::PNH transgene had ... leaf blades with gently ruffled surfaces

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

FIL::PNH ... ectopically expressing PNH in the abaxial leaf domain either causes an excess of cell divisions in this domain or represses cell division on the opposite, adaxial, side of the leaf ... The latter possibility seems less likely because plants expressing PNH in both leaf domains from the constitutive 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus did not show a similar degree of leaf curling

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

Plants carrying the 35S::PNH transgene ... Occasionally, the margins of the leaves curled up, but not to the same extent seen with FIL::PNH

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

In both wild-type and pnh plants, there was only one hydathode per cotyledon, as demonstrated by staining plants carrying a hydathode:: GUS marker gene

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

PNH; FIL::PNH plants ... cotyledons ... were normal

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

Wild-type cotyledons exhibited a stereotypical pattern of vascularization, which was similar in pnh mutants

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

Plants carrying the 35S::PNH transgene ... the leaves frequently were held upright, rather than lying flat against the soil

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

pnh; FIL::PNH ... Although the patterning of the vasculature was aberrant in continuity and the placement of branch points with respect to the wild type, the overall pattern was duplicated in double cotyledons rather than widened to service both sides

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

To investigate the mechanism of blade curling in PNH; FIL::PNH plants, the ratios of adaxial to abaxial epidermal cell numbers were compared in curled and wild-type rosette leaves. We expected that if abnormal cell expansion caused curling, the ratio of adaxial to abaxial cells would be the same in PNH; FIL::PNH and wild-type blades; if abnormal cell division rates caused curling, we expected this ratio to change. Cells from the youngest curled PNH; FIL::PNH leaves (plastochron 8 [P8] to P10) and similarly staged wild-type leaves were counted using transverse sections of shoot apices (Figures 4E to 4H). The ratio of adaxial to abaxial epidermal blade cells changed from an average of 1.01 ± 0.04 (se) with a range of 0.9 to 1.11 in wild-type blades to 0.63 ± 0.0095 (se) with a range of 0.60 to 0.66 in curled PNH; FIL::PNH blades (n = 5 blades for each genotype).

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

To observe the early stages of cotyledon doubling, pnh; FIL::PNH embryos were examined. Early and late heart-stage pnh; FIL::PNH embryos were very wide at the top, and their cotyledons were abnormally splayed compared with the wild type

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

In addition, a novel phenotype was seen in pnh; FIL::PNH cotyledons. The novel phenotype consisted of cotyledon primordia splitting at various points in development to form fused or unfused “double” cotyledons

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

pnh; FIL::PNH individuals germinated and grew much more slowly than wild-type individuals

Newman KL, Fernandez AG, Barton MK - Regulation of axis determinacy by the Arabidopsis PINHEAD gene

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  • Phenotype

CYCD3;1 OE plants ... an increase in the number of cells present in cotyledons

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

in the epidermis of mature cotyledons of CYCD3;1 OE seedlings, small nuclei and scattered cells expressing CYCB-GUS (data not shown) and mitotic figures continued to be observed, whereas in wild-type cotyledons, larger nuclei were observed and no mitotic figures could be found

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

In more mature leaves of the CYCD3;1 OE plants, palisade and spongy mesophyll layers did become recognizable, but both consisted of smaller cells than in the wild type

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

cell proliferation continued in CYCD3;1 OE leaves at a time when it had ceased in wild-type leaves

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

In more mature leaves of the CYCD3;1 OE plants ... The morphological distinction between the adaxial and abaxial epidermis was largely lost

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

Comparison of ploidy levels showed that CYCD3;1 OE cells were largely deficient in this differentiated phenotype and showed only a small proportion of nuclei with a DNA content of >4C (Figure 5F, right), whereas wild-type rosette leaves contained a substantial proportion of nuclei with DNA contents of 8C, 16C, and 32C (Figure 5F, left). Similar observations of reduced endoreduplication were made in a variety of mature tissues, including rosette leaves, bracts, and segments of the floral stalk (data not shown

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

The emergence of leaves was slower in CYCD3;1-overexpressing (CYCD3;1 OE) plants than in wild-type plants

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

Although the density of stomata was lower in CYCD3;1 OE plants, CYCD3;1 apparently does not profoundly influence differentiation after the specification of specific cell types such as stomatal guard cells (data not shown

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

the venation pattern of CYCD3;1 OE leaves also was less symmetric than in wild-type leaves

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

cotyledons of CYCD3;1 OE plants ... contained smaller cells

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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overexpressing CYCD3;1, resulting in ectopic divisions

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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Because cotyledons of CYCD3;1 OE plants were larger than those in wild-type plants

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

We observed a striking reduction of 30% in the proportion of G1 nuclei in CYCD3;1 OE plants and an accompanying increase in G2 nuclei compared with wild-type apices (Figure 4A). No change in the proportion of S-phase nuclei was observed

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

CaMV35S-CYCD3;1 ... subsequent rosette leaves curled soon after their formation over the abaxial surface

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

To quantify the effects of CYCD3;1 on cell proliferation in leaves, we performed a detailed analysis of cell number and size in the adaxial epidermal surface of rosette leaves at three stages of development (∼10 mm2, 30 to 50 mm2, and fully mature) (Figure 4E). These data show that CYCD3;1 overexpression had a dramatic effect on the number of cells present in leaves, because the adaxial epidermis of CYCD3;1 OE leaves of ∼10 mm2 already contained 20 to 30 times more cells than the epidermis of wild-type leaves

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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CaMV35S-CYCD3;1 ... rosette leaves ... remained somewhat smaller than their wild-type equivalents

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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CYCD3;1 OE ... Mature rosette leaves reached half the final surface area of the wild-type leaves

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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Cell areas were measured from thin sections, and in the wild type, the shoot apical meristem was found to vary from 14 to 64 μm2, with a median value of 39 μm2 (Figure 4B, left), whereas CYCD3;1 OE meristematic cells were significantly smaller, with a size range from 10 to 55 μm2 in cross-sectional area and a median size of 26 μm2 (Figure 4B, right). Cells flanking the shoot apical meristem of CYCD3;1 OE plants (Figure 4B, arrowheads) also were smaller than comparable cells bordering wild-type meristems

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

Histological examination of CYCD3;1 OE leaves revealed that both the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of transgenic leaves were characterized by the presence of small polygon-shaped pavement cells (Figure 5C, right), in contrast to the expanded sinusoid-shaped pavement cells in the wild type (Figure 5C, left). By plotting cell area against a “shape factor” (4Π area/perimeter2), which is unity for a perfect circle and decreases for more complex shapes, we can see that for wild-type epidermal cells, an increase in cell area is accompanied by the adoption of more complex shapes as cells differentiate (Figure 5D). In CYCD3;1 OE plants, cell sizes and shape factors were clustered at higher shape factor values (Figure 5D), suggesting that they are unable to develop their mature shape

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

CaMV35S-CYCD3;1 ... In young seedlings, cotyledons were enlarged

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

Consistent with CYCD3;1 promoting precocious G1 exit, we found a reduction in the average interphase cell size in the shoot apical meristem of CYCD3;1 OE plants

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

CYCD3;1 OE ... Mature rosette leaves ... contained ∼18-fold more cells in their adaxial epidermis

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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  • Phenotype

In young leaves (≤6 mm in length) of the CYCD3;1 OE plants, this typical dorsoventral organization of the leaf parenchyma into palisade and spongy mesophyll was not distinguishable, with the palisade layer apparently replaced by smaller spherical parenchyma cells and fewer intercellular air spaces present

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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CYCD3;1 OE ... mature epidermal cell size was affected dramatically, because even in mature rosette leaves, the cell area of transgenic pavement cells did not exceed 350 μm2, whereas the wild-type cells expanded from 350 to 22,000 μm2

Dewitte W, Riou-Khamlichi C, Scofield S, Healy JM, Jacqmard A, Kilby NJ, Murray JA - Altered cell cycle distribution, hyperplasia, and inhibited differentiation in Arabidopsis caused by the D-type cyclin CYCD3

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agb1 ... leaves ... have rounded lamina compared with their respective ecotypes

Ullah H, Chen JG, Temple B, Boyes DC, Alonso JM, Davis KR, Ecker JR, Jones AM - The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes

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gpa1 leaves ... have rounded lamina compared with their respective ecotypes

Ullah H, Chen JG, Temple B, Boyes DC, Alonso JM, Davis KR, Ecker JR, Jones AM - The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes

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agb1 lamina differ from gpa1 lamina as a result of the presence of islands of small cells that create a crinkly surface

Ullah H, Chen JG, Temple B, Boyes DC, Alonso JM, Davis KR, Ecker JR, Jones AM - The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes

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gpa1 seedlings are smaller, than wild-type seedlings

Ullah H, Chen JG, Temple B, Boyes DC, Alonso JM, Davis KR, Ecker JR, Jones AM - The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes

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agb1 seedlings are larger ... than wild-type seedlings

Ullah H, Chen JG, Temple B, Boyes DC, Alonso JM, Davis KR, Ecker JR, Jones AM - The beta-subunit of the Arabidopsis G protein negatively regulates auxin-induced cell division and affects multiple developmental processes

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  • Phenotype

the number of palisade cells was reduced by 50% in drl1-2

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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Statistically significantly smaller cells were present in the dorsal epidermis of ... drl1-4

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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The lamina length varied enormously among different drl1-2 individuals

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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in the drl1-2 mutant leaves ... dorsal and ventral identity was maintained

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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The lamina width ... the first and second expanded rosette leaves of a sub- population of drl1-2 individuals with normal leaf length were measured by image analysis and found to be reduced signifi- cantly compared with the wild type

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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  • Phenotype

In serial sections through expanded first and second leaves of drl1-2 (35-day-old seedlings), palisade cells were larger

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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in the subpopulation of drl1-2 individuals with normal leaf length (i.e., drl1-2 mutants had increased lamina length

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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The lamina ... area of the first and second expanded rosette leaves of a sub- population of drl1-2 individuals with normal leaf length were measured by image analysis and found to be reduced signifi- cantly compared with the wild type

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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in the subpopulation of drl1-2 individuals with normal leaf length (i.e., drl1-2 mutants had ... reduced petiole length

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-2 ... midvein was less pronounced

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-2 ... lamina was thicker

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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in the drl1-2 mutant leaves ... normal polarity in vascular bundles

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-2 ... Scanning electron microscopy and sec- tions showed that upon emergence from the SAM, the leaf primordia were much smaller than in the wild type

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-2 ... In some mutant individuals, no clear transition between lamina and petiole was seen

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-2 was isolated as a mutant with narrow leaves

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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Statistically significantly smaller cells were present in the dorsal epidermis of drl1-2

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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In serial sections through expanded first and second leaves of drl1-2 (35-day-old seedlings ... intercellular spaces were present next to the adaxial epidermis

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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the number of palisade cells ... reduced slightly in drl1-4

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-4 ... had ... normal leaf length

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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The palisade layer contained significantly larger cells in ... drl1-4

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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In serial sections through expanded first and second leaves of drl1-2 (35-day-old seedlings), palisade cells were ... more irregularly shaped

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-2 ... features may indicate ventralization of the leaf

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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  • Phenotype

The palisade layer contained significantly larger cells in drl1-2

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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drl1-4 ... had ... significantly narrower leaf lamina

Nelissen H, Clarke JH, De Block M, De Block S, Vanderhaeghen R, Zielinski RE, Dyer T, Lust S, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

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DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... A second class comprising 22 plantlets ... After the emergence of three to four tiny leaflets, growth arrested with a single radialized organ

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... The majority of transgenic plants (130 of 179; class 4), were mildly dwarfed

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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plants that expressed DRN-like from the CaMV35S promoter exhibited dwarfism or alterations in silique shape but maintained a functional shoot meristem during development (data not shown)

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... A third class of transgenic plants (18 of 179) was characterized by strong dwarfism, epinastic leaves

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

To confirm that increased expression of DRN/ESR1 causes the drn-D phenotype, we expressed the coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants. Of 179 primary transformants carrying the transgene, 9 seedlings stopped development after the emergence of two cotyledons (class 1)

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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drn-D mutants ... ∼3 weeks after germination, leaf initiation terminates with the formation of filamentous organs that lack the central vasculature

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... second class comprising 22 plantlets ... Sections through seedlings showed an enlarged ... SAM

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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drn-D SAM ... premature cellular differentiation

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... second class comprising 22 plantlets ... Sections through seedlings showed ... disorganized SAM, resembling the meristems of drn-D mutant plants

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

We isolated a loss-of-function allele, drn-1, from the SLAT collection ... we were unable to detect any phenotypic alteration in plants homozygous for the potential null allele compared with the wild type

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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Instead of small, meristematic cells, which are typical for the outer cell layers of the wild-type SAM, large and vacuolated cells ... cover the drn-D mutant apex

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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Compared with the wild type, histological sections show that the drn-D SAM is ... wider in diameter already in the early mutant seedling (Figures 1I and 1J). Meristem size increases further before the SAM finally fails to initiate lateral organs

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

The early vegetative phase of drn-D mutants until the four- to five-leaf stage is unaffected. From leaves 6 to 8 and onward, all leaves appear increasingly radialized

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... second class comprising 22 plantlets ... After the emergence of three to four tiny leaflets

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

Compared with the wild type, histological sections show that the drn-D SAM is flat

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... second class comprising 22 plantlets was ... small, and stunted

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

DRN/ESR1 ... coding region under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in transgenic plants ... A second class comprising 22 plantlets was dark green

Kirch T, Simon R, Grünewald M, Werr W - The DORNROSCHEN/ENHANCER OF SHOOT REGENERATION1 gene of Arabidopsis acts in the control of meristem ccll fate and lateral organ development

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  • Phenotype

change in timing of the juvenile-to-adult transition ... hst-1

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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hst-1; kan-11 ... produced significantly more abaxial trichomes on leaves 1 and 2 than did either single mutant

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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3-day-old hst-1 seedlings (Fig. 2F) have a larger ... SAM

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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hst-1 ... cells in the lower spongy layer ... have less intercellular space

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1, sqn-1 ... double mutants produced large numbers of abaxial trichomes starting with leaf 1

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The primordia of leaves 1 and 2 ... 3-day-old hst-1 seedlings ... probably because their initiation is delayed

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Mutations in SQUINT (SQN) ... are phenotypically similar to hst mutations in that they slightly delay leaf initiation

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The primordia of leaves 1 and 2 are also smaller than normal in 3-day-old hst-1 seedlings

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1; kan-11 double mutants had more highly up-rolled ... leaves

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 does affect the anatomy of the shoot apical meristem

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

3-day-old hst-1 seedlings (Fig. 2F) have ... more rounded SAM

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

upper mesophyll layer of hst-1 appears normal

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 plants ... subsequent leaves curve strongly upward

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 ... up-rolling of the leaf blade

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 plants ... loss of tissue polarity within the mesophyll of the leaf blade

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1, sqn-1 plants. Double mutant seedlings had a much more severe phenotype

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 ... reduction in the size of leaves

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1; kan-11 double mutants had more highly up-rolled cotyledons

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 ... accelerated production of abaxial trichomes

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1, sqn-1 plants ... being significantly smaller than both sqn-1 and hst-1

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

In hst-1, the onset of abaxial trichome production (Fig. 3A; Table 1), the increase adaxial trichome density (Fig. 3B) and the decline in blade:petiole ratio (Fig. 3C) begin with leaf 3 and proceed unusually quickly after this point ... hst-1 accelerates ... the juvenile-to-adult transition

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 seedlings exhibited a slight delay in leaf initiation during germination but went on to produce leaves at the same rate as wild type throughout the rest of vegetative development

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The first two leaves of hst-1 plants are generally flat

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The first two leaves of hst-1 plants are ... slightly up-rolled

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 ... cells in the lower spongy layer are more regular in shape

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Mutations in SQUINT (SQN) ... accelerate vegetative phase change

Bollman KM, Aukerman MJ, Park MY, Hunter C, Berardini TZ, Poethig RS - HASTY, the Arabidopsis ortholog of exportin 5/MSN5, regulates phase change and morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

in the rce1 mutant ... organ length is reduced throughout development

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

rce1-1 cotyledons showed only slightly reduced vascular development

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Rosette ... morphology ... altered in the rce1 mutant

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The rosette leaves of rce1 plants are smaller than those of Ler leaves

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

rce1 plants ... crinkled leaf blades

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

axr1-12 ... cotyledons showed only slightly reduced vascular development

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

vascular development was severely deficient in axr1-12 rce1-1 plants. Typically, one short vascular strand was visible in each cotyledon of these seedlings

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The rosette leaves of rce1 plants are ... rounder

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The rosette leaves of rce1 plants are ... with shorter petioles

Dharmasiri S, Dharmasiri N, Hellmann H, Estelle M - The RUB/Nedd8 conjugation pathway is required for early development in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

35S::AS2/Ler ... Abaxial-like epidermal cells appeared on part of the adaxial side of laminae of the first pair of rosette leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

35S::AS2/Ler ... of the first pair of rosette leaves ... the abaxial side was almost entirely covered in cells with adaxial features

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

To identify abnormalities of adaxial-abaxial polarity in as2 leaves at the cellular level, we analyzed cell patterns by transverse sectioning of as2 petioles ... The adaxial and abaxial asymmetry of petioles was lost completely in lotus-leaf petioles (Fig. 2B) and the radially symmetric portion of non-lotus-leaf petioles (data not shown) in the as2- 101 mutant. The overall epidermal characters of the radial petiole resembled those of abaxial epidermis in the wild type (for comparison, see Fig. 2A). Moreover, sub-epidermal cells in the lotus-leaf petioles seemed abnormal in shapes compared with those in the Ler plant: most cells in Ler petioles were irregularly shaped (Fig. 2A) while cells in the lotus-leaf petiole were arranged in an orderly fashion (Fig. 2B). In the asymmetric portion of the non-lotus-leaf petioles of the as2- 101 mutant, epidermal cells on the adaxial side were also aberrant as shown in Fig. 2C. In addition to the abaxial epidermal cells, cells similar to the margin epidermis seemed to occupy the adaxial positions

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

35S::AS2/Ler transgenic plants also produced needle-like leaves amongst the first appearing rosette leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

Our more recent results demonstrated that as1 ... in the Ler genetic background displayed a novel leaf structure: in some rosette leaves the petiole is attached to the abaxial surface of the leaf lamina, showing a lotus-leaf structure

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

the needle-like structure in 35S::AS2/Ler seedlings was an adaxialized organ

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... exhibited defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial axis

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

Ler ... plants carrying 35S::AS2 had narrow leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

as2-101 plants carrying 35S::AS2 ... laminae curled upwards

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

On the adaxial side of laminae, epidermal patterns in Ler and the 35S::AS1/Ler transgenic plants were similar

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

In the as2-101 mutant, however, each petiole showed a radially symmetric proximal portion, the length of which varied in a continuous series, depending upon leaf positions and leaf ages. Some leaves showed a radially symmetric portion at the very proximal end (Fig. 1E), while in others it was more distal (Fig. 1F). If the radially symmetric tissue reached high enough to affect the region where leaf lamina grew, the lotus-leaf was formed (Fig. 1G,H). The higher the radial portion ended, the smaller the whole leaf structure became. If the radially symmetric portion extended extremely distally, lamina development would be severely affected, resulting in either leaves with a very small lamina (Fig. 1I) or even needle-like organs without any lamina growth

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... exhibited defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial axis

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... structure might suggest a defect in the adaxial- abaxial axis in leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

margins of the as1-1 petioles curled upwards

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

Abaxial epidermal cells ... 35S::AS1/Ler transgenic plants (Fig. 3I) were also similar in shape

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Our more recent results demonstrated that ... as2 ... in the Ler genetic background displayed a novel leaf structure: in some rosette leaves the petiole is attached to the abaxial surface of the leaf lamina, showing a lotus-leaf structure

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

On the adaxial side of laminae ... 35S::AS1 lamina contained more stomata

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

as1 ... structure might suggest a defect in the adaxial- abaxial axis in leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

Ler plants containing 35S::AS1 displayed ... normally shaped leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Ler ... plants carrying 35S::AS2 ... laminae curled upwards

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

as2-101 plants carrying 35S::AS2 had narrow leaves

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

In comparison, the identity of adaxial and abaxial epidermal cells on laminae of the 35S::AS2/Ler transgenic plants was altered dramatically

Xu L, Xu Y, Dong A, Sun Y, Pi L, Xu Y, Huang H - Novel as1 and as2 defects in leaf adaxial-abaxial polarity reveal the requirement for ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2 and ERECTA functions in specifying leaf adaxial identity

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  • Phenotype

35S::mMYB33 caused leaves to curl upwards in many (39 of 63) primary transfor- mants

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

Constitutive expression of wild-type TCP2 or TCP4 partially rescued the leaf defects of jaw-D mutants. Leaves were less warped and elliptical than those of the parental line, but were still distinct from those of wild type

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

35S::mTCP2 plants ... were smaller

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

mTCP4 from the TCP4 promoter had less extreme effects than 35S::mTCP4 (see above), and the jaw-D leaf phenotype was suppressed in 11 of 15 surviving primary transformants. Notably, these plants showed a new phenotype: rounder leaves

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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In contrast, 35S::JAW had no effect on 35S::mTCP4 transcript stability (Fig. 4c), demonstrating that the synonymous mutations in mTCP4 strongly decrease susceptibility to miRNA-guided cleavage ... we introduced the same mutations in the genomic context of the TCP4 gene ... Common defects included fusion of the cotyledons

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

jaw-D ... primary defect is uneven leaf shape and curvature

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

The 35S::mTCP4 construct caused the same severe defects in jaw-D as in a wild-type background (not shown). Because these plants did not produce clearly identifiable ... leaves

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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In contrast, 35S::JAW had no effect on 35S::mTCP4 transcript stability (Fig. 4c), demonstrating that the synonymous mutations in mTCP4 strongly decrease susceptibility to miRNA-guided cleavage ... we introduced the same mutations in the genomic context of the TCP4 gene. Most (35 of 57) primary transformants carrying the mutated version of TCP4 were arrested at the seedling stage

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

The 35S::mTCP4 construct caused the same severe defects in jaw-D as in a wild-type background (not shown). Because these plants did not produce clearly identifiable cotyledons

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

35S::mTCP2 plants ... were ... greener

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

jaw-D mutants as having serrated leaves

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

Most (63 of 76) primary 35S::TCP4 transformants were phenotypically normal

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

In contrast, 35S::JAW had no effect on 35S::mTCP4 transcript stability (Fig. 4c), demonstrating that the synonymous mutations in mTCP4 strongly decrease susceptibility to miRNA-guided cleavage ... we introduced the same mutations in the genomic context of the TCP4 gene. Most (35 of 57) primary transformants ... Common defects included ... lack of a shoot apical meristem

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

the 35S::mTCP4 plants had marked pattern defects

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

jaw-D ... detailed inspection revealed that the primary defect is uneven leaf shape

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

In contrast, 35S::JAW had no effect on 35S::mTCP4 transcript stability (Fig. 4c), demonstrating that the synonymous mutations in mTCP4 strongly decrease susceptibility to miRNA-guided cleavage ... we introduced the same mutations in the genomic context of the TCP4 gene ... Common defects included ... overall tubular shape of the seedlings

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

35S::TCP4 transformants ... remainder having ... smaller leaves

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

Constitutive expression of wild-type TCP2 or TCP4 partially rescued the leaf defects of jaw-D mutants. Leaves were less warped and elliptical than those of the parental line, but were still distinct from those of wild type

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

35S::TCP2 plants had no obvious defects

Palatnik JF, Allen E, Wu X, Schommer C, Schwab R, Carrington JC, Weigel D - Control of leaf morphogenesis by microRNAs

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  • Phenotype

35S-ARGOS seed- lings displayed prolonged cell division in marginal meristems as well as in leaf blades

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

35S-ARGOS ... Leaf blades ... appeared to contain the same number of cell layers

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

petiole length of the fifth leaf were greatly ... de- creased in ARGOS ... antisense plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

The fifth leaf blades ... of 35S-anti-ARGOS plants contained ~20% fewer cells

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

Under our growth con- dition, fifth rosette leaves emerged at ~11 days after germina- tion. The total leaf length of vector control and ARGOS transgenic plants increased similarly in the subsequent 12 days. Leaves of antisense plants ceased to elongate at ~24 days after germina- tion, followed by control leaves at 27 days. However, 35S-ARGOS leaves continued to grow even after 33 days

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

axr1 mutant was reported to have smaller leaves ... resulting from de- creased cell numbers

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

overexpression of ARGOS ... axr1-3 ... producing similarly sized or even larger leaves compared with wild-type leaves

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

35S-ARGOS ... lines showed an enlarged ... leaf size

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

fresh weight of the corresponding leaf in ARGOS sense lines increased by 50 to 120%

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

ARGOS ... antisense ... little difference was observed in the size of cotyledons

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

overexpression of ARGOS ... axr1-3 ... producing similarly sized or even larger leaves compared with wild-type leaves

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

petiole length of the fifth leaf were greatly increased ... in ARGOS sense ... plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

blade ... length ... of the fifth leaf were greatly increased ... in ARGOS sense ... plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

pavement cell size was slightly larger in anti- sense plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

The fifth leaf blades of 35S-ARGOS plants contained ~30% more cells than those of vector control plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

pavement cells between vector control and ARGOS transgenic plants re- vealed little size difference between vector control and ARGOS sense plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

blade width ... of the fifth leaf were greatly ... de- creased in ARGOS ... antisense plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

a decreased dimension of palisade cells in the Z axis was observed in ARGOS-overexpressing leaves

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

axr1 mutant was reported to have smaller leaves

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

35S-anti-ARGOS ... Leaf blades ... appeared to contain the same number of cell layers

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

ARGOS sense ... little difference was observed in the size of cotyledons

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

blade width ... of the fifth leaf were greatly increased ... in ARGOS sense ... plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

35S-anti-ARGOS ... lines showed an ... re- duced leaf size

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

blade ... length ... of the fifth leaf were greatly ... de- creased in ARGOS ... antisense plants

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

fresh weight of the corresponding leaf ... in the ARGOS antisense plants de- creased by 20 to 60%

Hu Y, Xie Q, Chua NH - The Arabidopsis auxin-inducible gene ARGOS controls lateral organ size

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  • Phenotype

AtGRF1 4-7 ... overexpressors ... developed larger ... cotyledons

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... 25% decrease in petiole length

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of ... AtGRF2 ... showed a 35–135% increase in the surface area of leaves ... in comparison to wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... reduction in ... width of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... Petiole cells ... were 22% shorter

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

AtGRF2 overexpressor ... 42% increase ... in petiole length

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The leaf epidermal cells of ... the triple mutant grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... were ... smaller

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... Petioles of triple mutants were 27% shorter than those of wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

AtGRF2 7-2 ... overexpressors ... developed larger leaves

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf2 ... No ... visible phenotype

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... triple mutants had substantially smaller rosette leaves

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

AtGRF2 overexpressor ... Petiole cells ... were 38% longer

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... Petioles of triple mutants were 27% shorter than those of wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... The surface area of the third leaf blade of triple mutants was reduced by 32% compared to that of wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

AtGRF2 7-2 ... overexpressors ... developed larger ... cotyledons

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... reduction in ... width of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... reduction in ... length ... the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of ... AtGRF2 ... increase in ... length ... of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-1 ... No ... visible phenotype

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... the calculated cell numbers ... were not different from that of wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of ... AtGRF2 ... showed a 35–135% increase in the surface area of ... cotyledons in comparison to wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... reduction in ... length ... of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... The extent of fusion was variable in individual seedlings, usually resulting in heart-shaped cotyledons

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of ... AtGRF2 ... increase in ... width of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... triple mutants had substantially smaller ... cotyledons

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... About 10% of both triple mutants had cotyledons that were fused along one side of their edges

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

AtGRF1 4-7 ... overexpressors ... developed larger leaves

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of AtGRF1 ... showed a 35–135% increase in the surface area of leaves ... in comparison to wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... triple mutants had substantially smaller rosette leaves

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-2 ... No ... visible phenotype

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

AtGRF2 overexpressor ... the calculated cell numbers ... were not different from that of wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf3 ... No ... visible phenotype

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of AtGRF1 ... increase in ... width of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of AtGRF1 ... Petiole length of leaves and cotyledons also increased by 24–109%

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The leaf epidermal cells of AtGRF2 overexpressor line 7-2 ... were larger

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... The surface area of the third leaf blade of triple mutants was reduced by 32% compared to that of wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of AtGRF1 ... showed a 35–135% increase in the surface area of ... cotyledons in comparison to wild-type plants

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of ... AtGRF2 ... Petiole length of leaves and cotyledons also increased by 24–109%

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Overexpressors of AtGRF1 ... increase in ... length ... of the blades

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... triple mutants had substantially smaller ... cotyledons

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-1 grf2 grf3 ... About 10% of both triple mutants had cotyledons that were fused along one side of their edges

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

grf1-2 grf2 grf3 ... The extent of fusion was variable in individual seedlings, usually resulting in heart-shaped cotyledons

Kim JH, Choi D, Kende H - The AtGRF family of putative transcription factors is involved in leaf and cotyledon growth in Arabidopsis

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Two as1 35S:AS2 seedlings formed narrow cotyledons that curled upward

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

In 35S:AS2 leaves, veins were twisted such that this polarity was variable along the proximal-distal leaf axis

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class-I and class-IIA seedlings did not arrest, and the majority of these plants produced narrow leaves

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

In 35S:AS2 ... Polarity often was disrupted, resulting in vascular bundles that formed at an abnormal angle relative to the plane of the leaf surface (data not shown). In the most extreme cases, phloem was encircled by xylem (Fig- ure 5H). Occasionally, a strand of xylem developed without any associated phloem (data not shown

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

polarity was disrupted in 35S:AS2 ... leaves

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class- IIB ... making only a few leaves that ... occasionally were radial

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

The adaxial surface of 35S:AS2 leaves was not visibly different from that of wild-type leaves

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

Unlike the internal tissues, polarity defects were apparent only occasionally in the epidermal cells of 35S:AS2 plants

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class-I and class-IIA seedlings ... produced ... leaves ... that were ... twisted

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

The remaining as1 35S:AS2 seedlings produced leaves that curled upward at the edges (Figure 8B), in contrast to as1 mutant leaves, which curled downward

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

in 35S:AS2 ... Elongated, densely packed cells that resembled pali- sade mesophyll were present beneath the abaxial epidermis, and cells on the adaxial side of the leaf resembled spongy me- sophyll (Figures 5B, 5D, and 5E). In those leaves that were ra- dial in appearance, a subepidermal ring of palisade cells was observed around the entire leaf

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 transgenic seedlings, all formed cotyledons that ... curled upward

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class-I and class-IIA seedlings did not arrest, and the majority of these plants produced ... leaves that were curled upward

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... cotyledon ... lateral veins usually did not form

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

The abaxial epidermis of 35S:AS2 leaves appeared to be a mixture of adaxial and abaxial cell types. Patches of epidermis on this side of the leaf resembled the wild-type adaxial epidermis, containing cells that are uniform in size, with an absence of the characteristic large, irregular cells that typify the wild-type abax- ial epidermis

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Occasionally, the cotyle- don midvein split to form two or more veins

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 transgenic seedlings, all formed cotyledons that were narrow

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class-I and class-IIA seedlings ... produced ... leaves that ... formed finger-like outgrowths from the abaxial leaf surface

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

The venation pattern of 35S:AS2 seedlings also was different from that of the wild type

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class- IIB seedlings ... making only a few leaves that usu- ally failed to expand

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... cotyledon midvein frequently failed to develop to the tip

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

35S:AS2 ... Class- IIB seedlings arrested after making only a few leaves

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Two as1 35S:AS2 seedlings formed narrow cotyledons

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

polarity was disrupted in 35S:AS2 cotyledons

Lin WC, Shuai B, Springer PS - The Arabidopsis LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES-domain gene ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 functions in the repression of KNOX gene expression and in adaxial-abaxial patterning

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX1 ... spatial density of veins of higher order (tertiary and quaternary veins and freely ending veinlets) was decreased

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

The formation of new rosette leaves was delayed throughout vegetative growth in ... not in 35S:AtCKX2

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

AtCKX1 overexpression resulted in a strong reduction of the diameter ... of the meristem

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Ro- sette leaves expanded more slowly than wild-type leaves until they reached their final size, and unlike wild-type leaves, the leaves of 35S:AtCKX1

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

The formation of new rosette leaves was delayed throughout vegetative growth in ... 35S:AtCKX3 transgenic plants

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX1 ... de- creased cell number

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

decrease in the di- ameter of vascular bundles in 35S:AtCKX1 transgenic plants

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

typical regular structure and organization of the SAM were not altered in 35S:AtCKX1 transgenic plants

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

levels of IAA were reduced significantly to 53 to 66% ... in plants expressing 35S:AtCKX1

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX3, shoot growth stopped completely at the two- to four-leaf stage

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

In ~30% of the seedlings of homozygotic strong expressers of 35S:AtCKX1 ... shoot growth stopped completely at the two- to four-leaf stage

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

a lower num- ber of ... phloem cells ... in 35S:AtCKX1 transgenic plants

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

a lower num- ber of xylem ... cells ... 35S:AtCKX1 transgenic plants

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

surface area of leaves from the main rosette was ... 30 to 38% of the wild-type area for ... 35S:AtCKX4

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX1 ... number ... of veins of higher order (tertiary and quaternary veins and freely ending veinlets) was decreased

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

typical regular structure and organization of the SAM were not altered in 35S:AtCKX1 transgenic plants

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX2 ... In shoots harvested 14 days after germination (DAG), most of the eight different cytokinin metabolites analyzed were reduced significantly compared with wild-type tissue

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

The cells of 35S:AtCKX1 leaves were slightly enlarged

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX1 ... In shoots harvested 14 days after germination (DAG), most of the eight different cytokinin metabolites analyzed were reduced significantly compared with wild-type tissue

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

35S:AtCKX ... Transverse sections through the central part of the fully de- veloped seventh leaf showed that fewer cells were formed in the dorsoventral direction and that the extent of intercellular air spaces between blade mesophyll cells was greater than that in wild-type leaves

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

The formation of new rosette leaves was delayed throughout vegetative growth ... not in ... 35S:AtCKX4

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

AtCKX1 overexpression resulted in a strong reduction of the ... height of the meristem

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Ro- sette leaves expanded more slowly than wild-type leaves until they reached their final size, and unlike wild-type leaves, the leaves of ... 35S:AtCKX3

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

A comparison of the vascular pattern, as visualized in whole-mount preparations of cleared leaves, showed that the leaf vasculature in 35S:AtCKX1 leaves was re- duced greatly compared with that in wild-type leaves

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

surface area of leaves from the main rosette was 8 to 12% of the wild-type area for ... 35S:AtCKX3

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

surface area of leaves from the main rosette was 8 to 12% of the wild-type area for 35S:AtCKX1

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

AtCKX1 overexpression resulted in ... fewer meristematic cells

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

AtCKX1 overexpression resulted in ... decreased size of the meristematic cells

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

The formation of new rosette leaves was delayed throughout vegetative growth in 35S:AtCKX1

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

surface area of leaves from the main rosette was ... 30 to 38% of the wild-type area for 35S:AtCKX2

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

the levels of IAA were reduced significantly to ... 73 to 76% of the wild-type content in plants expressing ... 35S:AtCKX2

Werner T, Motyka V, Laucou V, Smets R, Van Onckelen H, Schmülling T - Cytokinin-deficient transgenic Arabidopsis plants show multiple developmental alterations indicating opposite functions of cytokinins in the regulation of shoot and root meristem activity

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  • Phenotype

SD-grown 35S::antiATHB16 plants did not differ significantly from wild-type in leaf size

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The average rosette leaf area of ... 35S::antiATHB16 plants 44% larger than that of the wild-type

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the width of rosette leaves were reduced in 35S::ATHB16

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the leaves of 35S::antiATHB16 plants grown under LD were larger than wild-type leaves

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Cross-sections prepared from the fifth rosette leaf of 35S::ATHB16 ... and wild-type plants showed that altered levels of ATHB16 expression did not affect the thickness

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB16 plants had rosette leaves with an increased serration of edges

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB16 plants ... The length/width ratio of the rosette leaves did not differ significantly between plants

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Cross-sections prepared from the fifth rosette leaf of ... 35S::antiATHB16, and wild-type plants showed that altered levels of ATHB16 expression did not affect the thickness

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In contrast, 35S::antiATHB16 leaf epidermal cells were 43% larger than wild-type cells

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the length ... of rosette leaves were ... increased in 35S::antiATHB16 plants, as compared with wild-type

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

35S::ATHB16 plants had rosette leaves with ... a size smaller than that of wild-type in plants grown under LD and SD

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the length ... of rosette leaves were reduced in 35S::ATHB16

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The average rosette leaf area of 35S::ATHB16 plants was approximately 30% smaller ... than that of the wild-type

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Cross-sections prepared from the fifth rosette leaf of 35S::ATHB16 ... showed that altered levels of ATHB16 expression did not affect ... the anatomy of leaves

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

As shown in Fig. 4 and Table 1, the leaf epidermal cells of 35S::ATHB16 rosette leaves, on average, were 38% smaller than the corresponding wild-type cells

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

35S::antiATHB16 plants ... The length/width ratio of the rosette leaves did not differ significantly between plants

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Cross-sections prepared from the fifth rosette leaf of ... 35S::antiATHB16 ... showed that altered levels of ATHB16 expression did not affect ... the anatomy of leaves

Wang Y, Henriksson E, Söderman E, Henriksson KN, Sundberg E, Engström P - The Arabidopsis homeobox gene, ATHB16, regulates leaf development and the sensitivity to photoperiod in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

line 1-1 expressing antisense full length DHS cDNA ... judging from the temporal patterns of chlorophyll reduction, senescence was delayed until at least 10 weeks after planting in the transgenic plants depending on the level of expression of the antisense transgene

Wang TW, Lu L, Zhang CG, Taylor C, Thompson JE - Pleiotropic effects of suppressing deoxyhypusine synthase expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Suppression of DHS expression ... resulted in ... more rapid growth

Wang TW, Lu L, Zhang CG, Taylor C, Thompson JE - Pleiotropic effects of suppressing deoxyhypusine synthase expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Suppression of DHS expression also resulted in increased biomass ... At 31 days after planting, rosette leaf biomass for transgenic lines 1-1 and 6C was ca. 40% and ca. 60% higher, respectively, than the rosette leaf biomass for wild-type plants grown in parallel in the same growth chamber (Figure 5A). Higher biomass for these transgenic lines was evident up to 38 days of growth (Figure 5A). After 38 days of age, leaf biomass expressed as fresh weight of tissue declined as the senescing tissue lost water (Figure 5A). For transgenic line 2A, which exhibited the highest level of DHS suppression, leaf biomass continued to increase through day 70 after planting in keeping with the strong inhibition of leaf senescence

Wang TW, Lu L, Zhang CG, Taylor C, Thompson JE - Pleiotropic effects of suppressing deoxyhypusine synthase expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

The vegetative leaves ... show reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... ucu1-2

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

When ucu2/ucu2 leaves are stretched on a slide for observation under a microscope, their adaxial surface wrinkles

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 plants show reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... which affects ... the petiole

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... the lamina ... of ucu1-1 ... homozygous plants

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-1 ... compact ... rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

In a large-scale screening for Arabidopsis mutants displaying abnormally shaped or sized leaves ... one of the strongest leaf phenotypes found was ... vegetative leaves are rolled spirally downwards, in a circinate manner ... UCU2 complementation group included two recessive alleles, ucu2-1 (Fig. 1D) and ucu2-3, which were respectively induced by fast neutron bombardment (P. Robles and J.L. Micol, unpublished data) and T-DNA insertional mutagenesis (this work

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1 mutants display a de-etiolated phenotype

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 ... cauline leaves are reduced in length

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

The aerial parts of ucu2/ucu2 seedlings ... displayed hypersensitivity to auxin efflux inhibitors

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... petiole ... of ucu1-1 ... homozygous plants

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

The vegetative leaves of ucu2/ucu2 plants show reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

inner tissues of ... ucu1/ucu1 mutants ... showed a reduced number of air spaces

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

The vegetative leaves ... show reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... ucu1-1

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... the petiole ... of ... ucu1-2 homozygous plants

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

No obvious differences with the wild type were found in the inner tissues of ucu2/ucu2 leaves

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 ... cauline leaves are ... very wrinkled

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-2 ... dark-green rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu (ultracurvata) mutants, whose vegetative leaves are rolled spirally downwards, in a circinate manner

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 ... cauline leaves are reduced in ... wide

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-1 ... dark-green rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 plants grown in the dark displayed a wild-type photomorphogenic response because no leaves were developed

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 leaves displayed many more clustered stomata than the wild-type leaves on both the adaxial and abaxial epidermis

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

cauline leaves ... circinate morphology ... ucu1/ucu1

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-2 ... plants are dwarf

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

The abaxial pavement cells of the ucu2/ucu2 mutants ... are only slightly smaller than those of the wild type

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-2 ... compact ... rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu1-1 ... plants are dwarf

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 plants ... compact ... rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 plants are dwarf

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

Bending of the ucu2/ucu2 vegetative leaves is more pronounced along the primary vein, whose length is clearly reduced compared with the wild type (Fig. 2, H and J), whereas the higher order veins and the complexity of the venation pattern seem to be much less affected, similar to that already observed in plants homozygous for the ucu1 semidominant alleles

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 plants ... dark-green rosettes

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

In a large-scale screening for Arabidopsis mutants displaying abnormally shaped or sized leaves ... one of the strongest leaf phenotypes found was ... vegetative leaves are rolled spirally downwards, in a circinate manner ... the UCU1 gene was represented by one recessive (Fig. 1B) and two semidominant ethyl methanesulfonate-induced alleles

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

ucu2/ucu2 plants show reduced expansion along the proximodistal axis ... which affects ... the lamina

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

leaves are stretched on a slide for observation under a microscope, their adaxial surface wrinkles ... ucu1/ucu1 mutants

Pérez-Pérez JM, Ponce MR, Micol JL - The ULTRACURVATA2 gene of Arabidopsis encodes an FK506-binding protein involved in auxin and brassinosteroid signaling

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  • Phenotype

35S::JAG ... Unusual outgrowth of stipules is also observed from the base of leaves

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

jag mutant rosette leaves often have mild serrations along the lateral margins, in contrast to wild type

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

35S::JAG ... leaves are often irregular in shape

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

analysis of transgenic lines ... in the wild-type background. 35S::JAG transgenic plants showed ... varying degrees of cotyledon fusion (44 out of 104 T1 plants) were observed, including either a single fused cotyledon or a goblet- shaped structure resulting from fusion along both lateral cotyledon margins

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

jag-3 cotyledon shape is abnormal (Fig. 1O) with the petiole and blade regions more elongated than the wild-type organ

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

35S::JAG ... adjacent leaves may be fused along the lateral margins

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

Detailed analysis of transgenic lines is described in the wild-type background. 35S::JAG transgenic plants showed ... formation of ectopic leaf-like tissues throughout the plant

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

jag-3 cotyledon shape is abnormal

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

35S::JAG cotyledons exhibit a highly irregular vasculature in which a central midvein is not identifiable and the strands do not form a closed circuit

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

35S::JAG cotyledons exhibit a highly irregular vasculature

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

Both 35S::JAG pedicel (Fig. 7O) and stem (Fig. 7P) epidermis contain cells that closely resemble leaf pavement cells

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

Detailed analysis of transgenic lines is described in the wild-type background. 35S::JAG transgenic plants showed disrupted organogenesis

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

35S::JAG cotyledons exhibit a highly irregular vasculature in which a central midvein is not identifiable

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

Many 35S::JAG seedlings also fail to develop leaves after germination

Ohno CK, Reddy GV, Heisler MG, Meyerowitz EM - The Arabidopsis JAGGED gene encodes a zinc finger protein that promotes leaf tissue development

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  • Phenotype

While leaf blade area is not significantly different, jag-1

Dinneny JR, Yadegari R, Fischer RL, Yanofsky MF, Weigel D - The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

In both homozygous and heterozygous jag-5D mutants ... teardrop shape

Dinneny JR, Yadegari R, Fischer RL, Yanofsky MF, Weigel D - The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

jag-1 leaves, however, develop with a serrated edge

Dinneny JR, Yadegari R, Fischer RL, Yanofsky MF, Weigel D - The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

In both homozygous and heterozygous jag-5D mutants, the petiole ... or develops blade tissue along its edge

Dinneny JR, Yadegari R, Fischer RL, Yanofsky MF, Weigel D - The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

In both homozygous and heterozygous jag-5D mutants, the petiole is either absent

Dinneny JR, Yadegari R, Fischer RL, Yanofsky MF, Weigel D - The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

Inactivation of JAG affects the shape of most lateral organs including leaves

Dinneny JR, Yadegari R, Fischer RL, Yanofsky MF, Weigel D - The role of JAGGED in shaping lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

rosette leaf area of 35S::EXO plants were increased in comparison to wild-type plants

Coll-Garcia D, Mazuch J, Altmann T, Müssig C - EXORDIUM regulates brassinosteroid-responsive genes

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  • Phenotype

Petiole length ... of 35S::EXO plants were increased in comparison to wild-type plants

Coll-Garcia D, Mazuch J, Altmann T, Müssig C - EXORDIUM regulates brassinosteroid-responsive genes

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  • Phenotype

transgenic lines overexpressing the full-length sequence of an ERF-type transcription factor, At1g15360 [the ERF family has also been referred to as EREBP ... Leaves of these plants were strikingly glossier than those of control plants

Broun P, Poindexter P, Osborne E, Jiang CZ, Riechmann JL - WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

transgenic WIN1 overexpressors ... were ... slower growing than their wild-type counterparts

Broun P, Poindexter P, Osborne E, Jiang CZ, Riechmann JL - WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Whereas control Arabidopsis rosette leaves do not produce wax crystals, leaves of 35S:WIN1 plants display characteristic plate-like wax crystals that are typically 1-2 μm in length ... leaf wax of lines 6 (class B) and 22 (class C) were subjected to GC-MS analysis. As shown on Fig. 3a, there were major differences both in total wax content and wax composition between leaves of WIN1 overexpressors and of control plants. Average wax content, on a fresh weight basis, ranged between 1.1- and 2-fold wild-type values [line 6/control: 77.3/72.0 μg·grams of fresh weight (gfw)-1; line 22/control: 126.9/65.5 μg·gfw-1]. Increases in the most abundant wax species in wild-type leaves, such as hentriacontane (C31 alkane) and nonacosane (C29 alkane) accounted for most of the change in wax content (Fig. 3a

Broun P, Poindexter P, Osborne E, Jiang CZ, Riechmann JL - WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

transgenic WIN1 overexpressors ... were smaller in stature

Broun P, Poindexter P, Osborne E, Jiang CZ, Riechmann JL - WIN1, a transcriptional activator of epidermal wax accumulation in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

hlr ... Mutant plants form ... narrow ... leaves

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

Moreover, 23.8% (n=193) of the hlr plants ceased leaf production and died before bolting, whereas 100% (n=117) of wild-type plants succeeded in bolting

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

hlr ... Mutant plants form ... asymmetrical leaves

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

hlr ... Mutant plants form ... dentate ... leaves

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

In mature embryos of the mutant, both the size and cell arrangement of the SAM were normal, and cell layers were clearly observed (Fig. 2E,F; black lines). However, the SAM was enlarged and the cell layers were disrupted in 8-day-old mutant seedlings, possibly owing to their irregular cell division planes (Fig. 2H, arrowheads). These results indicate that hlr mutants form a SAM of normal structure during embryogenesis, but fail to maintain its cellular organization after germination

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

the hlr rosettes exhibited disordered phyllotaxy with irregular angles between the leaves (Fig. 1I). To quantify the abnormality in phyllotaxis, we counted the number of plants in which the angles between serial rosette leaves were greater than 170° or less than 100°. The frequency of abnormal hlr plants was 76.6% (n=193), much greater than that of wild type (1.8% [n=117])

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

hlr ... Mutant plants form abnormally shaped leaves

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

SAM activities are also abnormal in the hlr mutant

Ueda M, Matsui K, Ishiguro S, Sano R, Wada T, Paponov I, Palme K, Okada K - The HALTED ROOT gene encoding the 26S proteasome subunit RPT2a is essential for the maintenance of Arabidopsis meristems

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  • Phenotype

This result indicated that photosystem II (PSII) of the crl mutant was not impaired

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The amounts of chlorophylls ... b decreased in the crl mutant

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

proplastids in the SAM were enlarged ... in the crl mutant

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

chloroplasts in the crl mutant ... also divided unevenly

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl ... Mesophyll cells were also altered in morphology

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When the cDNA coding region of At5g51020 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into the crl mutant ... rescued ... chloroplast number

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

proplastids in the SAM were ... reduced in number in the crl mutant

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the structure of the SAM ... in the crl mutant was disorganized

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The amounts of chlorophylls a ... decreased in the crl mutant

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl mutant plants ... possessed ... irregular leaf margins compared to wild-type plants

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl mutant plants ... possessed crumpled laminas

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the chlorophyll a/b ratio of the crl mutant was the same as that for the wild type

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The ratio of variable fluorescence (Fv):maximum fluorescence (Fm) was identical between the crl and wild-type plants

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl ... Mesophyll cells were also altered in ... organization

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl mutant plants were pale green

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When the cDNA coding region of At5g51020 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into the crl mutant ... rescued ... leaf morphology

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl mutant ... chloroplasts ... were extremely enlarged compared to those of the wild type

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

TEM revealed that there were no obvious differences in the organization of the thylakoid membranes between wild type and the crl mutant

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

This result suggested that the plane of orientation of cell division in the SAM was distorted in the crl mutant

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When the cDNA coding region of At5g51020 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into the crl mutant ... rescued ... chloroplast size

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Mesophyll cells of the crl mutant contained fewer chloroplasts

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Examination of leaf cross-sections revealed that leaf lamina of the crl mutant comprised of random-sized cells compared to those of the wild-type lines

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

crl mutant plants ... had a reduced stature

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When the cDNA coding region of At5g51020 under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter was introduced into the crl mutant, the mutant phenotype was rescued in all the mutants

Asano T, Yoshioka Y, Kurei S, Sakamoto W, Machida Y; Sodmergen - A mutation of the CRUMPLED LEAF gene that encodes a protein localized in the outer envelope membrane of plastids affects the pattern of cell division, cell differentiation, and plastid division in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In fifth leaves, wild type and rot4-1D were indistinguishable with respect to the sizes and the shapes of palisade ... cells, when transverse sections were examined

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

In fifth leaves, wild type and rot4-1D were indistinguishable with respect to the sizes and the shapes of ... sponge ... cells, when transverse sections were examined

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To confirm that this gene corresponded to ROT4, we tested whether the rot4-1D phenotype was reconstituted when wild-type plants were transformed with a construct that placed the candidate gene fused with green fluorescence protein (GFP) under control of the CaMV 35S promoter (35S::ROT4-GFP). Foliage leaves of homozygous T3 plants from three independent transformants were shorter than those of wild type, as was seen in rot4-1D (Figure 3d), confirming that the candidate gene corresponded to ROT4

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

The leaf blade of rot4-1D was ... rounded

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

In fifth leaves, wild type and rot4-1D were indistinguishable with respect to the sizes and the shapes of ... epidermal cells, when transverse sections were examined

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

numbers and sizes of the palisade cells in the first, third, and fifth rosette leaves were measured. The leaf blades of rot4-1D had fewer cells than that of the wild type, and, as in the case of the leaf blade length, this was more evident in the leaves formed at later developmental stages

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

To relate the decrease in the cell number to the effect of rot4-1D on leaf shape (Figure 2a), the palisade cell numbers in both the leaf-length and leaf-width directions were counted. Again, the number of palisade cells in the leaf-length direction in rot4-1D decreased in a similar fashion to the decrease in total cell number in the subepidermal layer (Figure 2c). However, the cell numbers along the leaf-width direction in rot4-1D were not significantly different at any of the developmental stages examined

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

rot4-1D mutation ... The measurements of cell size and cell number do not account for the decrease in leaf width (Figure 2a). This discrepancy could be attributable to the combined effect of subtle decreases in the cell number in the leaf-width direction and cell size in rot4-1D

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

reductions in ... petiole length in rot4-1D

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

The leaf blade of rot4-1D was short

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

rot4-1D ... the reduction in leaf blade length was more pronounced in leaves formed at later developmental stages

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

these results suggest that the main effect of the rot4-1D mutation is a decrease in cell proliferation along the leaf-length direction

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

In addition, the palisade cell sizes in bottom, middle, and top portions of first and third leaves in rot4-1D were comparable to the corresponding wild-type leaves and portions (Figures 1e and 2d). Although the cell size in the bottom portion of the fifth leaf in rot4-1D was smaller than that of wild type (Figure 2d), this might be because of a retardation in fifth leaf expansion as rot4-1D plants grow slightly slower than wild type. Cells in older leaves of rot4-1D expanded to a similar extent to wild-type cells

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

the length of the leaf margin is significantly decreased in the rot4-1D mutant

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

reductions in leaf blade ... length in rot4-1D were more severe than those in leaf blade width

Narita NN, Moore S, Horiguchi G, Kubo M, Demura T, Fukuda H, Goodrich J, Tsukaya H - Overexpression of a novel small peptide ROTUNDIFOLIA4 decreases cell proliferation and alters leaf shape in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-2 ahk3-2 double mutant ... showed ... shortened petioles

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... showed ... shortened petioles

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the leaves of the ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... expanded slower than those of the wild-type controls

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-2 ahk3-2 double mutant ... higher ordered veins were not formed

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... The slow leaf primordial formation suggested that the function of the shoot apical meristem (SAM) was moderately affected

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-2 ahk3-2 double mutant ... decreased density of veins

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 ... mature leaves ... contained ... 20% cells compared with those of the wild-type plants

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ... double mutant, showed compact rosettes

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutants ... In the middle of leaf development (from 10 to 13 DAG), the cells in the triple mutant were slightly larger than those in other plants (Figure 6C), suggesting an earlier onset of cell expansion

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk3-1 ahk4-1 double mutants exhibited normal sized rosette structures

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... leaf vasculature ... was impaired

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

small seedlings are homozygous for the mutant alleles (i.e., ahk2-1, ahk3-1, and ahk4-1) at all three loci

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... numbers of abaxial epidermal cells were also decreased

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... mature leaves ... contained ∼50 ... % ... cells compared with those of the wild-type plants

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-2 ahk3-2 double mutant ... showed ... small leaf blades

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... leaf vasculature ... was impaired

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... final size of the leaf cells was the same

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 ... SAM region of the triple mutant at 12 d after germination (DAG) exhibited a typical regular structure and organization

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-2 ahk3-2 double mutant ... leaf vasculature ... was impaired

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... SAM ... cell number was reduced

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... The rate of leaf primordial formation was slightly decreased

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the leaves of the ... ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutants expanded slower than those of the wild-type controls

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... higher ordered veins were not formed

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... the phyllotaxy seemed to be normal

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... development of stomatal guard cells ... occurred normally

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk4-1 ... double mutants, constructed by means of genetic crosses, also grew normally

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

None of the single ahk mutants (i.e., ahk2-1, ahk3-1, and ahk4-1) exhibited significant defective phenotype as to their growth, at least under the standard growth conditions

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 ... areas of the leaves ... were ... 20% of those of the controls

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The ahk4-1 mutant is less sensitive to exogenous cytokinins than the wild type but exhibits no other obvious phenotype in the absence of exogenous cytokinins

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk3-1 ahk4-1 double mutants, constructed by means of genetic crosses, also grew normally

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-2 ahk3-2 double mutant, showed compact rosettes

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... higher ordered veins were not formed

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... development of ... trichomes occurred normally

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... showed ... small leaf blades

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

for the ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant (Figure 5G). The longitudinal length of leaf blades was affected much more than the lateral length, so the leaf shape was slightly altered

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... areas of the leaves ... were ∼55 ... % ... of those of the controls

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk4-1 ... exhibited normal sized rosette structures

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... SAM ... size ... was reduced

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant exhibited a semidwarf phenotype

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutants ... final size of the leaf cells was the same

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant ... decreased density of veins

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

None of the single ahk mutants (i.e., ahk2-1, ahk3-1, and ahk4-1) exhibited significant defective phenotype as to their growth, at least under the standard growth conditions

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 double mutant ... decreased density of veins

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutant exhibited a reduced seedling size with small cotyledons

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ahk2-1 ahk3-1 ahk4-1 triple mutants ... numbers of abaxial epidermal cells were also decreased

Nishimura C, Ohashi Y, Sato S, Kato T, Tabata S, Ueguchi C - Histidine kinase homologs that act as cytokinin receptors possess overlapping functions in the regulation of shoot and root growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 leaves were 10-20 cells across, compared to only six cell layers in wild type

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

Cells on the abaxial side of kan1 kan2 leaf primordia maintained a densely cytoplasmic appearance for a prolonged time, and periclinal divisions were common

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-8 yab3-2 ... quadruple mutant plants were greatly reduced in overall size

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants ... leaves ... developed ectopic outgrowths on their abaxial side

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 kan1-2/+ kan2-1 plants had short and narrow leaves, with trichomes on both sides of the first produced leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-8 yab3-2 ... leaves lacked a clear plane of blade symmetry and expanded at random orientations, resulting in short ... structures

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-5 yab3-1 ... quadruple mutant plants were greatly reduced in overall size

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

neither the kan1 kan2 ... plants have leaves that grow to the normal length

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 kan1-2/+ kan2-1 plants had short ... leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-5 yab3-1 ... the first two leaves appeared nearly radial

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 ... fil yab3 ... quadruple mutants only grew to 20% of the normal length of wild-type leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

AS1>>KAN2 plants, the leaves that developed were radialized

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 ... the blade outgrowths on the abaxial side of leaves represent a novel phenotype. To address their nature, anatomical, morphological and molecular characterizations were carried out. The outgrowths appeared first in a row on the lower third of the leaf, with additional outgrowths continuing to initiate and expand for as long as the leaf differentiates (Fig. 1G-H, Fig. 4A). The epidermis of these outgrowths in mature leaves had a high density of stomata interspersed amongst long rectangular cells similar to those found typically at leaf margins. In wild-type seedlings, the unique leaf marginal cells exhibited specific GUS staining in the enhancer trap marker line YJ158 (Fig. 4B). The outgrowths of kan1 kan2 young leaves showed GUS expression of this marker throughout their circumference (Fig. 4C), suggesting acquisition of radial blade identity

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-5 yab3-1 ... lacked stipules entirely

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

fil-5 yab3-1 kan1-2/+ kan2-1 plants had ... narrow leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

leaf primordia of ... kan1 kan2 kan3 seedlings were nearly radial

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

nor the fil yab3 plants have leaves that grow to the normal length

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

Anatomical analyses of the kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-5 yab3-1 leaves revealed a dramatic loss of tissue asymmetry (Fig. 5G-I). Subepidermal cells on both the abaxial and adaxial sides resemble each other, and exhibited an overall similarity to adaxial cell types. In the first two leaves, vascular bundles were greatly reduced with normal phloem/xylem orientation. In the later produced leaves, there were 10-12 cell layers and vasculature was often lacking

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 kan3 leaves ... with a fan-like blade at their distal end

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 ... leaves were narrow

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

leaf primordia of kan1 kan2 ... were nearly radial

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

ectopic meristems could occasionally be found at the abaxial base of kan1 kan2 kan3 leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-8 yab3-2 ... lacked stipules entirely

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 kan3 ... giving rise to long narrow leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

only grew to 20% of the normal length of wild-type leaves, similar in size to homozygous phb1-d leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-8 yab3-2 ... the first two leaves appeared nearly radial

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

AS1>>KAN2 plants, the leaves that developed were ... abaxialized

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-8 yab3-2 ... leaves lacked a clear plane of blade symmetry and expanded at random orientations, resulting in ... thick structures

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-5 yab3-1 ... leaves lacked a clear plane of blade symmetry and expanded at random orientations, resulting in short ... structures

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 plants ... leaves were ... dark green

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1-2 kan2-1 fil-5 yab3-1 ... leaves lacked a clear plane of blade symmetry and expanded at random orientations, resulting in ... thick structures

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

All lateral organs had gross morphological defects in kan1 kan2 plants

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 kan3 leaves were nearly radial at initiation, these leaves still displayed some polarity, as trichomes were not present on the abaxial sides of the first leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

leaves of kan1 kan2 syd were radially symmetric and lacked outgrowths

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

kan1 kan2 kan3 ... giving rise to long narrow leaves

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

leaves of kan1 kan2 syd were ... adaxialized

Eshed Y, Izhaki A, Baum SF, Floyd SK, Bowman JL - Asymmetric leaf development and blade expansion in Arabidopsis are mediated by KANADI and YABBY activities

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  • Phenotype

we did not observe any differences in the morphology of ... leaf primordia between Ler and hen3-1 in longitudinal sections or by SEM

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

No organ identity or floral determinacy defects were obvious in hua1-1 hen3

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

No organ identity or floral determinacy defects were obvious in ... hen3 mutants

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We ... performed scanning electron microscopy to examine leaf adaxial epidermal cells in the four genotypes ... the hen3 mutants had, on average, smaller cells than wild type

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We isolated ... recessive mutations in a gene we named HUA ENHANCER3 (HEN3 ... hen3-3 ... resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity and floral determinacy in the hua1-1 hua2-1 background

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We isolated ... recessive mutations in a gene we named HUA ENHANCER3 (HEN3 ... hen3-2 ... resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity and floral determinacy in the hua1-1 hua2-1 background

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the area of the fully expanded fifth leaf ... in ... hen3-2 allele caused a nearly 50% reduction in leaf size

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

we generated a translational fusion of HEN3 toβ -glucuronidase (GUS) under the control of the HEN3 promoter. This fusion construct was introduced into hen3-1 and found to largely rescue the hen3-1 vegetative phenotypes

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We observed that all three hen3 alleles resulted in the reduction of leaf size

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

hen3 mutants ... it appears that the reduction in leaf size ... is due to reduced cell expansion rather than cell division

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

We isolated ... recessive mutations in a gene we named HUA ENHANCER3 (HEN3). hen3-1 ... resulted in loss of reproductive organ identity and floral determinacy in the hua1-1 hua2-1 background

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

we did not observe any differences in the morphology of the SAM ... between Ler and hen3-1 in longitudinal sections or by SEM

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The HEN3-HA ... transgene was able to rescue the hen3-1 silique ... and stem elongation defect (not shown), suggesting that the fusion protein was functional

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

No organ identity or floral determinacy defects were obvious in ... hua2-1 hen3

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

hen3 single mutant plants also exhibited shorter stems

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaf adaxial epidermal cells ... the hen3 mutants had ... Taking into account the differences in leaf size, these genotypes have roughly the same number of cells in the fifth leaves

Wang W, Chen X - HUA ENHANCER3 reveals a role for a cyclin-dependent protein kinase in the specification of floral organ identity in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

ron2-2 ... leaves of the mutants were wider

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ron2-1 ... leaves of the mutants were wider

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

longer total leaf length ... in the ron2-1 plants

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

Wild-type and ron2-1 mutant leaves had similar lamina lengths

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The serial transverse sections revealed that both the organization ... was not altered in the tissues of ron2-1 plants

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The cell area of ... the palisade parenchyma was significantly larger in leaf 3 of the ron2-1 plants than that of the wild type

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The serial transverse sections revealed that ... polarity was not altered in the tissues of ron2-1 plants

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

larger laminas in the ron2-1 plants, as confirmed by lamina area measurements

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

width of the lamina were larger ... in the ron2-1 plants

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ron2-2 ... leaves of the mutants were ... serrated

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

length of the petiole ... were larger ... in the ron2-1 plants

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ron2-1 ... number of palisade cells in the mutant does not differ significantly from that of the wild type

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

The cell area of ... the upper epidermis ... was significantly larger in leaf 3 of the ron2-1 plants than that of the wild type

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

ron2-1 ... leaves of the mutants were ... serrated

Cnops G, Jover-Gil S, Peters JL, Neyt P, De Block S, Robles P, Ponce MR, Gerats T, Micol JL, Van Lijsebettens M - The rotunda2 mutants identify a role for the LEUNIG gene in vegetative leaf morphogenesis

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  • Phenotype

dark green leaves ... were also observed ... the T-DNA insertion allele arf2-5

Li H, Johnson P, Stepanova A, Alonso JM, Ecker JR - Convergence of signaling pathways in the control of differential cell growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The arf1 mutant alone did not show any obvious phenotypes in either differential growth (Figure 6C) or any other aspects of plant growth and development that were examined

Li H, Johnson P, Stepanova A, Alonso JM, Ecker JR - Convergence of signaling pathways in the control of differential cell growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

dark green leaves ... were also observed in the ... arf2-2

Li H, Johnson P, Stepanova A, Alonso JM, Ecker JR - Convergence of signaling pathways in the control of differential cell growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

arf2-3 mutants displayed ... dark green leaves

Li H, Johnson P, Stepanova A, Alonso JM, Ecker JR - Convergence of signaling pathways in the control of differential cell growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

dark green leaves ... were also observed in the arf2-1

Li H, Johnson P, Stepanova A, Alonso JM, Ecker JR - Convergence of signaling pathways in the control of differential cell growth in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Both rosette and cauline leaves of the mutant (termed shn) had a more brilliant, shiny green color when compared with wild-type plants

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the first true leaves of 35S:SHN1/WIN1 seedlings contained much lower numbers of trichomes, ranging from complete absence up to a maximum of 8 to 10 trichomes per leaves

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When trichomes were present on the first leaves of 35S:SHN1/WIN1, they were nearly all single branched

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The phenotype of most of the 35S:SHN1/WIN1 lines (both primary transformants and subsequent generations) was more severe compared with the original shn mutant ... their leaves were strongly curved, even rolled

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants overexpressing ... SHN3 showed an identical visual phenotype to the one obtained when overexpressing the SHN1/WIN1 gene, including ... reduction in trichome number

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants overexpressing ... SHN3 showed an identical visual phenotype to the one obtained when overexpressing the SHN1/WIN1 gene, including the more brilliant, shiny green color of both rosette and cauline leaves

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

In contrast with the wild type, we detected more wax crystals on both adaxial and abaxial sides of rosette and cauline leaves of shn ... The leaf surface was not entirely covered by crystals, as in the case of wild-type siliques and stems, but rather had irregular patches of plate-like wax crystals

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

stomatal density on the abaxial side of the 35S:SHN1/WIN1 lines were reduced compared with wild-type leaves

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The shn mutant wax phenotype was characterized by a sixfold increase in wax coverage over the wild type, expressed as mass of extractable cuticular lipids per surface area (Table 1). Wild-type leaf wax was found to contain approximately equal amounts of compounds from the acyl reduction pathway (primary alcohols and alkyl esters) and from the decarbonylation pathway (alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones). By sharp contrast, the shn mutant wax was characterized by differences in amounts of compounds resulting from both pathways. Whereas primary alcohols and alkyl esters showed only 2.8- and 1.4-fold increases, the alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones were increased by 9.0-, 11.9-, and 11.0-fold, respectively. Aldehydes, regarded as intermediates of the decarbonylation pathway, showed 2.2-fold higher levels in the mutant wax mixture. Similarly, other compound classes (fatty acids, branched alcohols, and steroids) were also found at elevated levels in the mutant wax, albeit only with moderate increases ... In both wild-type and mutant leaf waxes the fatty acids, aldehydes, and primary alcohols were dominated by constituents with even carbon numbers, as expected for acyl derivatives resulting from C2 elongation cycles (Figure 3). The alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones showed a clear preponderance of odd-numbered representatives, typical for metabolites from the elongation/decarbonylation route. The wild-type wax showed chain length distributions dominated by C32/C34 for fatty acids and aldehydes, by C31 for alkanes, and by C26/C28 for primary alcohols. Only C29 secondary alcohol and ketone, with functional groups both in the C14 and C15 position, could be detected. As compared with these wild-type patterns, the mutant leaf wax contained much higher concentrations of C30 fatty acid, C30 aldehyde, and C27/C29 alkanes, compensating for lower relative amounts of C34 fatty acid, C34 aldehyde, and C33 alkane, respectively (Figure 3). The chain length distribution of secondary alcohols, ketones, and primary alcohols were similar in the wild type and the mutant

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants overexpressing ... SHN3 showed an identical visual phenotype to the one obtained when overexpressing the SHN1/WIN1 gene, including ... leaf curling

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

SHN1/WIN1 ... was cloned and constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus ... all the transgenic plants raised (20 individuals) showed a phenotype resembling the original activation tag line, in particular the shn brilliant green leaf

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants overexpressing SHN2 ... showed an identical visual phenotype to the one obtained when overexpressing the SHN1/WIN1 gene, including ... leaf curling

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants overexpressing SHN2 ... showed an identical visual phenotype to the one obtained when overexpressing the SHN1/WIN1 gene, including ... reduction in trichome number

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

When trichomes were present on the first leaves of 35S:SHN1/WIN1 ... located on leaf blade margins

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

pavement cell density ... on the abaxial side of the 35S:SHN1/WIN1 lines were reduced compared with wild-type leaves

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Both rosette and cauline leaves of the mutant (termed shn) ... often had curved-down edges

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

plants overexpressing SHN2 ... showed an identical visual phenotype to the one obtained when overexpressing the SHN1/WIN1 gene, including the more brilliant, shiny green color of both rosette and cauline leaves

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Calculating the stomatal index revealed that it was reduced by 41% in the 35S:SHN1/WIN1 leaves compared with the wild type

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

SHN1/WIN1 ... was cloned and constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter of Cauliflower mosaic virus ... all the transgenic plants raised (20 individuals) showed a phenotype resembling the original activation tag line, in particular the shn ... downward curling of the leaves

Aharoni A, Dixit S, Jetter R, Thoenes E, van Arkel G, Pereira A - The SHINE clade of AP2 domain transcription factors activates wax biosynthesis, alters cuticle properties, and confers drought tolerance when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

BRI1-overexpressing transgenic line that displays longer ... rosette leaves compared with the wild-type plants

Nam KH, Li J - The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1

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  • Phenotype

TTL-TTL–overexpressing transgenic plants displayed rounder rosette leaves

Nam KH, Li J - The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1

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  • Phenotype

the two ttl mutants were bigger than the wild-type plants of the same developmental age with ... longer petioles

Nam KH, Li J - The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1

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  • Phenotype

BRI1-overexpressing transgenic line that displays ... narrower rosette leaves compared with the wild-type plants

Nam KH, Li J - The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1

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  • Phenotype

TTL-TTL–overexpressing transgenic plants displayed ... rosette leaves with shorter petioles

Nam KH, Li J - The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1

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  • Phenotype

the two ttl mutants were bigger than the wild-type plants of the same developmental age with larger rosette leaves

Nam KH, Li J - The Arabidopsis transthyretin-like protein is a potential substrate of BRASSINOSTEROID-INSENSITIVE 1

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  • Phenotype

The cell size in ... GIF1-RNAi leaves ... was slightly larger than that in the corresponding wild-type plants

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

the grf1–2 grf3 gif1 triple mutant displayed an additional decrease in cell numbers compared to its parental mutants

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The cell size in gif1 ... leaves ... was slightly larger than that in the corresponding wild-type plants

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1–2 grf3 gif1 ... Its leaf area was reduced to one-half and one-third, respectively, of that of gif1 and the grf triple mutant

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gif1 ... This reduction in leaf area was primarily due to a nearly 40% decrease in leaf width

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gif1 ... Leaf ... length were reduced by ~20%

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

RNAi construct designed to reduce the level of GIF1 mRNA ... These lines displayed 43–53% reduction in blade area

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The reduction in the width of the other rosette and cauline leaves of gif1 mutants was similar to that of the first two rosette leaves, although there was only a marginal decrease in the length of the leaf blade and the petiole

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gif1 ... The surface area of the first two mature rosette leaves was reduced by nearly 50%

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

grf1–2 grf3 gif1 ... The triple mutant had much smaller leaves than did the parental grf triple and gif1 single mutants

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Compared to Col wild-type plants, gif1 mutants developed ... narrower rosette leaves

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The cell numbers were reduced in ... the gif1 ... plants by ~35% ... for the first two leaves

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

gif1 ... petiole length were reduced by ~20%

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

RNAi construct designed to reduce the level of GIF1 mRNA ... decrease in blade width

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Compared to Col wild-type plants, gif1 mutants developed shorter ... rosette leaves

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The cell numbers were reduced in ... RNAi plants by ~35% ... for the first two leaves

Kim JH, Kende H - A transcriptional coactivator, AtGIF1, is involved in regulating leaf growth and morphology in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Loss-of-function alleles of ZIP accelerate the expres- sion of adult-phase vegetative traits

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

hst-1 ... accelerate the juvenile-to-adult transition

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

sgs3-11 ... accelerate an otherwise normal transition to the adult phase

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

sgs3-11 ... produce abaxial trichomes precociously ... Abaxial trichomes ap- pear ... at the base of leaf 4 in sgs3-11, and gradually increase in extent over the next few leaves

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Loss-of-function alleles of ZIP ... phenotype of these mutations is most apparent in the first two leaves of the rosette, which are elongated

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

rdr6-11 ... produce abaxial trichomes precociously ... Abaxial trichomes ap- pear at the base of leaf 3 in zip-1 and rdr6-11 ... and gradually increase in extent over the next few leaves

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

sqn-1 ... accelerate the juvenile-to-adult transition

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

rdr6-11 ... accelerate an otherwise normal transition to the adult phase

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

zip mutations produce a forward shift in abaxial trichome production ... Abaxial trichomes ap- pear at the base of leaf 3 in zip-1 ... and gradually increase in extent over the next few leaves

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

Loss-of-function alleles of ZIP ... phenotype of these mutations is most apparent in the first two leaves of the rosette, which ... curl downward

Peragine A, Yoshikawa M, Wu G, Albrecht HL, Poethig RS - SGS3 and SGS2/SDE1/RDR6 are required for juvenile development and the production of trans-acting siRNAs in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

To investigate the role of eIF3h in Arabidopsis, we isolated a recessive mutant allele (eif3h-1) carrying a T-DNA insertion in the 10th exon (Figure 2A ... After germination in darkness, hypocotyl length was reduced and seedlings displayed an open hook and separation of the cotyledons (Figure 3C), features characteristic of a defect in etiolation

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Morphological phenotypes of the eif3h-1 mutant, such as bushiness, epinastic cotyledons, warped leaves, poor gravitropism, occasional pin-formed inflorescence bolts, and a short primary root with few root hairs (Figures 2C and 3F; data not shown), suggested an altered auxin response

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Furthermore, at or above 2% sucrose, full germination of eif3h-1 was inhibited (Figure 5C), and purple anthocyanin pigments persisted in the hypocotyl

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

In the absence of sucrose in the medium, eif3h-1 mutant seedlings arrested their development before primary leaf expansion (Figure 5A, left column). By contrast, 1% sucrose prevented the developmental arrest, indicating that eif3h-1 needs an exogenous sugar source after germination

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Homozygous eif3h-1 mutant plants displayed postembryonic growth retardation ... Vegetative shoot and root growth, flowering, and senescence were delayed compared with the wild type

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Partial rescue of root growth by 1% sucrose, inhibition of germination by 6% sucrose, and sucrose-dependent anthocyanin accumulation were also observed in the csn1/fus6 mutant

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

To investigate the role of eIF3h in Arabidopsis, we isolated a recessive mutant allele (eif3h-1) carrying a T-DNA insertion in the 10th exon (Figure 2A ... After germination in darkness, hypocotyl length was reduced and seedlings displayed an open hook and separation of the cotyledons (Figure 3C), features characteristic of a defect in etiolation

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Approximately 80% of eif3h-1 mutant plants arrested their development as vegetative rosettes (Figure 3A) and died, regardless of whether the plants were grown in soil or on sterile medium. In the remaining plants, shoot axillary meristems often became activated late in the growth period, leading to a bushy appearance characteristic of a loss of apical dominance

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Approximately 80% of eif3h-1 mutant plants arrested their development as vegetative rosettes (Figure 3A) and died, regardless of whether the plants were grown in soil or on sterile medium. In the remaining plants, shoot axillary meristems often became activated late in the growth period, leading to a bushy appearance characteristic of a loss of apical dominance

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

Morphological phenotypes of the eif3h-1 mutant, such as bushiness, epinastic cotyledons, warped leaves, poor gravitropism, occasional pin-formed inflorescence bolts, and a short primary root with few root hairs (Figures 2C and 3F; data not shown), suggested an altered auxin response

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

Visit the PubMed Article

  • Phenotype

In the absence of sucrose in the medium, eif3h-1 mutant seedlings arrested their development before primary leaf expansion

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

Furthermore, at or above 2% sucrose, full germination of eif3h-1 was inhibited (Figure 5C), and purple anthocyanin pigments persisted in the hypocotyl

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

In the absence of sucrose in the medium, eif3h-1 mutant seedlings arrested their development before primary leaf expansion (Figure 5A, left column). By contrast, 1% sucrose prevented the developmental arrest, indicating that eif3h-1 needs an exogenous sugar source after germination. However, 1% sucrose also delayed the greening process (Figure 5A, second column

Kim TH, Kim BH, Yahalom A, Chamovitz DA, von Arnim AG - Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h

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  • Phenotype

approximately three out of four bop1- 1/+ plants formed a small ectopic outgrowth on one or two of their rosette leaves

Ha CM, Jun JH, Nam HG, Fletcher JC - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 encodes a BTB/POZ domain protein required for leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 leaves are misshapen of the blade

Ha CM, Jun JH, Nam HG, Fletcher JC - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 encodes a BTB/POZ domain protein required for leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Plants carrying the bop1-4 RNA null allele also have a weak phenotype, displaying a single ectopic leaf outgrowth

Ha CM, Jun JH, Nam HG, Fletcher JC - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 encodes a BTB/POZ domain protein required for leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

Plants carrying the bop1-4 RNA null allele also have a weak phenotype, displaying ... mild leaf lobing

Ha CM, Jun JH, Nam HG, Fletcher JC - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 encodes a BTB/POZ domain protein required for leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

bop1-3 ... a single ectopic outgrowth from the leaf petiole region in approximately 2–3% of the homozygous plants

Ha CM, Jun JH, Nam HG, Fletcher JC - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 encodes a BTB/POZ domain protein required for leaf morphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

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  • Phenotype

AtE2Fa dri- ven by a constitutively enhanced CaMV 35S pro- moter ... narrower leaves

He SS, Liu J, Xie Z, O'Neill D, Dotson S - Arabidopsis E2Fa plays a bimodal role in regulating cell division and cell growth

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AtE2Fa over- expression ... at the older leaf stage, the cell size of the leaves from transgenic plants was in- creased by about 30

He SS, Liu J, Xie Z, O'Neill D, Dotson S - Arabidopsis E2Fa plays a bimodal role in regulating cell division and cell growth

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  • Phenotype

AtE2Fa dri- ven by a constitutively enhanced CaMV 35S pro- moter ... with narrower leaves that were nevertheless similar in length

He SS, Liu J, Xie Z, O'Neill D, Dotson S - Arabidopsis E2Fa plays a bimodal role in regulating cell division and cell growth

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  • Phenotype

AtE2Fa dri- ven by a constitutively enhanced CaMV 35S pro- moter ... more than 50% of these R1 transgenic plants exhibited narrower leaves than the wild-type control plants

He SS, Liu J, Xie Z, O'Neill D, Dotson S - Arabidopsis E2Fa plays a bimodal role in regulating cell division and cell growth

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  • Phenotype

AtE2Fa over- expression ... at the younger stage, leaf cell number of the transgenic plants was reduced by about 33

He SS, Liu J, Xie Z, O'Neill D, Dotson S - Arabidopsis E2Fa plays a bimodal role in regulating cell division and cell growth

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... shows increased numbers of veins within the petiole

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

in ... as2 first leaves ... midvein differentiation frequently terminated before the leaf apex or veered away from the leaf tip (Figures 4E and 4G

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... generally having smaller ... blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

First and fifth leaves of ... as2 plants are obviously distinct from the wild type in shape

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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First and fifth leaves of both as1 ... obviously distinct from the wild type in shape

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... generally having ... heart-shaped blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

In first leaves, the margin is continuous except for the distal margin gap. In fifth leaves, the distal margin gap is also present (Figures 2A and 2B), and a margin gap involving a similar number of cells also occurs infrequently at the tips of leaf serrations (one gap observed in four leaves, Figure 2D). In ... as2 first leaves, margin gaps are seen in variable positions within the proximal half of the leaf and contain cell types similar to those seen on the abaxial leaf surface, often interspersed with stomata

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... shows increased numbers of veins within the petiole

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

In ... wild-type leaves treated with 10−6 M 2,4-D ... 10 DAG treated leaves usually remain small with little midvein differentiation

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... generally having ... shorter petioles

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... generally having ... heart-shaped blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

in ... as2 first leaves ... As in the wild type, distal secondary veins were initiated at the apical end of the midvein (Figures 4A and 4D), although more frequently than in the wild type, one secondary vein was initiated later than the other or was initiated below the distal tip of the midvein

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

shorter petioles from which asymmetric lobes emerge, and protrusions from the leaf blade that are larger and asymmetrically placed compared with wild-type serrations

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as1 ... generally having ... shorter petioles from which asymmetric lobes emerge, and protrusions from the leaf blade that are larger and asymmetrically placed compared with wild-type serrations

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

Treatment of developing ... wild-type leaves with 10−7 M 2,4-D results in an auxin response that appears somewhat more intense and more widespread than in untreated leaves (cf. Figures 6A to 6H with 5A to 5L). Nevertheless, the mature leaf shape ... of treated leaves ... appears unchanged compared with untreated leaves

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

In first leaves, the margin is continuous except for the distal margin gap. In fifth leaves, the distal margin gap is also present (Figures 2A and 2B), and a margin gap involving a similar number of cells also occurs infrequently at the tips of leaf serrations (one gap observed in four leaves, Figure 2D). In ... as1 ... first leaves, margin gaps are seen in variable positions within the proximal half of the leaf and contain cell types similar to those seen on the abaxial leaf surface, often interspersed with stomata

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

we examined development of vascular pattern in as1 and as2 first leaves (Table 4, Figure 4). The differentiating midvein in mutant first leaves was visible in essentially the normal position and normal acropetal direction, although it occurred slightly later (6 DAG) than in the wild type (5 DAG; Figure 4A

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

venation pattern is simpler through the as1 ... leaf blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Leaf primordia of ... as2 ... smaller than wild-type leaves

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

we examined development of vascular pattern in as1 and as2 first leaves (Table 4, Figure 4). The differentiating midvein in mutant first leaves was visible in essentially the normal position and normal acropetal direction, although it occurred slightly later (6 DAG) than in the wild type (5 DAG; Figure 4A

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

First and fifth leaves of ... as1 ... obviously distinct from the wild type in ... size

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

as2 ... generally having ... more curled ... blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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in ... as2 first leaves ... The distal secondary veins rejoined the midvein at a more proximal point of the midvein than in the wild type, resulting in larger distal secondary loops (Figures 4E, 4F, 4H, and 4I). These large loops were often divided by subsequent intercalary formation of secondary veins (Figures 4E, 4F, 4H, and 4I). Differentiation of secondary veins, as indicated by xylem thickenings, occurred basipetally in both the wild type and mutants (Figures 4B, 4E, and 4H). Initiation of proximal secondary veins, which occurs from the distal secondaries at about the midpoint of the leaf blade in the wild type (Figures 4B and 4C), occurs at a more distal point in the mutant leaves (Figures 4E, 4F, 4H, and 4I

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

Leaf primordia of ... as1 ... curl inward

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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in as1 ... first leaves ... The distal secondary veins rejoined the midvein at a more proximal point of the midvein than in the wild type, resulting in larger distal secondary loops (Figures 4E, 4F, 4H, and 4I). These large loops were often divided by subsequent intercalary formation of secondary veins (Figures 4E, 4F, 4H, and 4I). Differentiation of secondary veins, as indicated by xylem thickenings, occurred basipetally in both the wild type and mutants (Figures 4B, 4E, and 4H). Initiation of proximal secondary veins, which occurs from the distal secondaries at about the midpoint of the leaf blade in the wild type (Figures 4B and 4C), occurs at a more distal point in the mutant leaves (Figures 4E, 4F, 4H, and 4I

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Leaf primordia of ... as1 ... show little petiole development

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Treatment of developing ... wild-type leaves with 10−7 M 2,4-D results in an auxin response that appears somewhat more intense and more widespread than in untreated leaves (cf. Figures 6A to 6H with 5A to 5L). Nevertheless, the mature leaf ... vascular pattern of treated leaves ... appears unchanged compared with untreated leaves

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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venation pattern is simpler through the ... as2 leaf blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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in as1 ... first leaves ... midvein differentiation frequently terminated before the leaf apex or veered away from the leaf tip (Figures 4E and 4G

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Leaf primordia of ... as1 ... smaller than wild-type leaves

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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  • Phenotype

Leaf primordia of ... as2 ... curl inward

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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as1 ... generally having smaller ... blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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as1 ... generally having ... more curled ... blades

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Leaf primordia of ... as2 ... show little petiole development

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Leaf primordia of ... as1 ... wider at the distal than the proximal end of the blade

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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as2 ... generally having ... shorter petioles

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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Leaf primordia of ... as2 ... wider at the distal than the proximal end of the blade

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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in as1 ... first leaves ... As in the wild type, distal secondary veins were initiated at the apical end of the midvein (Figures 4A and 4D), although more frequently than in the wild type, one secondary vein was initiated later than the other or was initiated below the distal tip of the midvein

Zgurski JM, Sharma R, Bolokoski DA, Schultz EA - Asymmetric auxin response precedes asymmetric growth and differentiation of asymmetric leaf1 and asymmetric leaf2 Arabidopsis leaves

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continuous ... blue light inhibited leaf petiole elongation; this effect also increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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When seedlings were grown in sucrose-free medium and then transferred to fresh medium containing 2% sucrose, the growth of the leaf blade and petiole was enhanced in both white light and darkness, as compared with seedlings transferred to 0% sucrose (data not shown). This result suggests that sucrose promotes the growth of both the leaf blade and the petiole, irrespective of the light conditions, despite the fact that photoreceptor signals act differentially in the regulation of the growth of the leaf blade and petiole

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In white light, the proportion of 2C nuclei decreased, with a corresponding increase in the 4C nuclei, and the levels of 8C and 16C nuclei were unchanged (Fig. 2C). In leaves treated with white light (120 μmol m–2 s–1) for 72 h, the leaf blades expanded by 3.9 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SD; n ≥ 15), but the leaf blades did not expand during dark treatment. These results suggest that the light dependency of leaf blade expansion is correlated with an enhanced endoreduplication cycle

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In contrast, in blue light, the cry1 ... showed very similar decreases in the relative leaf blade expansion

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf blade expansion of the cryptochrome mutants ... in red light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous ... blue light enhanced the growth of the leaf blade, which increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous ... red ... light inhibited leaf petiole elongation; this effect also increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous ... far-red ... light inhibited leaf petiole elongation; this effect also increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In blue light, the relative lengths of the petioles of the ... cry1cry2 double mutant ... 101.9%

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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in blue light ... in the relative leaf blade expansion ... no differences were observed between the wild type and the phot1phot2 mutant

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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The leaf petiole elongation in red light was weakest in the phyB mutant among the single mutants examined

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous white ... light inhibited leaf petiole elongation; this effect also increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In addition, there were no differences in the leaf blade expansion of the wild type and the abi4 mutant. These results suggest that in blue light, a portion of the growth promotion of the leaf blade is dependent on endogenous ABA

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous white ... light enhanced the growth of the leaf blade, which increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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The ploidy profiles of the leaf blades remained constant during the dark treatment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In blue light, leaf blades of the aba1 ... expanded much less than those of the wild type, but no differences were evident in darkness or red light ... These results suggest that in blue light, a portion of the growth promotion of the leaf blade is dependent on endogenous ABA

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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We also examined the effects of the light condition on the cell number of the petiole. During the dark treatment for 42h, the number of mes- ophyll cells was increased slightly compared with before the treatment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In blue light, the relative lengths of the petioles of the cry1 mutant ... 77.7 ... %

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous ... far-red ... light enhanced the growth of the leaf blade, which increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf blade expansion of the cryptochrome mutants ... in red light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf blade expansion of ... the phototropin mutants ... in red light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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in blue light, the ... cry1cry2 ... showed very similar decreases in the relative leaf blade expansion

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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the leaf blade expansion in red light was weakest in the phyB mutant, and similar results were also obtained in the phyAphyB and phyBphyD double mutants

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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Thus, the ctr1 mutation appears to have a negative effect on the growth of the leaf blade and the petiole, except for the leaf petiole elongation in red light, suggesting that ethylene signal transduction is inactive in the leaf petiole in red light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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The increase in the leaf petiole length in darkness also correlated with an increase in the length of the mesophyll cells (Table 2), with the mesophyll cells in the basal portion of the leaf petiole elongating more than those in the apical portion

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In blue light, leaf blades of the ... aba2 ... expanded much less than those of the wild type, but no differences were evident in darkness or red light ... These results suggest that in blue light, a portion of the growth promotion of the leaf blade is dependent on endogenous ABA

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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  • Phenotype

When seedlings were grown in sucrose-free medium and then transferred to fresh medium containing 2% sucrose, the growth of the leaf blade and petiole was enhanced in both white light and darkness, as compared with seedlings transferred to 0% sucrose (data not shown). This result suggests that sucrose promotes the growth of both the leaf blade and the petiole, irrespective of the light conditions, despite the fact that photoreceptor signals act differentially in the regulation of the growth of the leaf blade and petiole

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf petiole elongation of the wildtype, aba1 ... plants, irrespective of the light conditions ... These results suggest that endogenous ABA is not required for the portion of leaf petiole elongation that responds to the light environment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In blue light, leaf blades of the ... aba3 ... expanded much less than those of the wild type, but no differences were evident in darkness or red light ... These results suggest that in blue light, a portion of the growth promotion of the leaf blade is dependent on endogenous ABA

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In contrast, in leaf petioles, only small differences in the levels of 4C to 16C nuclei were observed between plants grown in light and dark conditions (Fig. 2B, D). The leaf petioles elongated by 3.5 ± 0.9 mm (mean ± SD; n ≥ 15) when exposed to white light (120 μmol m–2 s–1) for 72 h, and by 12.8 ± 1.0 mm (mean ± SD; n ≥ 15) when held in darkness for 72 h. These data indicate that in the petiole, endoreduplication proceeds independently of the light conditions and the extent of growth

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf petiole elongation of the wildtype ... aba3 ... plants, irrespective of the light conditions ... These results suggest that endogenous ABA is not required for the portion of leaf petiole elongation that responds to the light environment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf petiole elongation of the wildtype ... abi4 plants, irrespective of the light conditions ... These results suggest that endogenous ABA is not required for the portion of leaf petiole elongation that responds to the light environment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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the increase in the area of the leaf blade promoted by white light correlated with an increase in the areas of the palisade cells. The areas of the cells in the middle portion of the leaf blades increased most dramatically

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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In the ctr1 mutant, as in the aba mutants, less leaf blade expansion occurred in blue light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf petiole elongation of the wildtype ... aba2 ... plants, irrespective of the light conditions ... These results suggest that endogenous ABA is not required for the portion of leaf petiole elongation that responds to the light environment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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During the dark treatment, the expansion of leaf blades almost completely ceased, whereas the leaf blades nearly doubled in area during white light treatment

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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the ctr1 mutant ... less leaf blade expansion was also observed in red light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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continuous ... red ... light enhanced the growth of the leaf blade, which increased with the light intensity

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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the increase in the area of the leaf blade promoted by white light correlated with an increase in the areas of the palisade cells. The areas of the cells in the middle portion of the leaf blades increased most dramatically

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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The increase in the leaf petiole length in darkness also correlated with an increase in the length of the mesophyll cells (Table 2), with the mesophyll cells in the basal portion of the leaf petiole elongating more than those in the apical portion

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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There were no significant differences in the leaf blade expansion of ... the wild type in red light

Kozuka T, Horiguchi G, Kim GT, Ohgishi M, Sakai T, Tsukaya H - The different growth responses of the Arabidopsis thaliana leaf blade and the petiole during shade avoidance are regulated by photoreceptors and sugar

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On the other hand, levels of BRs were almost same as WT in cyp72c1-1 plants

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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13% of plants overexpressing At1g17060 did recapitulate the dwarf phenotype

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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All the rosette leaves ... had short petioles ... shk1-D

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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We selected one of these dwarf mutants that had dark green leaves ... shk1-D

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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Using gas chromatography-selected ion monitoring analysis, we revealed that endogenous levels of CS, 6-deoxoCS and 6-deoxotyphasterol (6-deoxoTY) in shk1-D were greatly reduced compared with WT (Table 1). However, endogenous levels of 6-deoxo-3-dehydroteasterone (6-deoxo3DT), 6-deoxoteasterone (6-deoxoTE), 6-deoxocathasterone (6-deoxoCT) and typhasterol (TY) in shk1-D were almost same as WT. These four BRs are intermediate precursors of BL

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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  • Phenotype

we could not detect any obvious phenotype in rosette and cauline leaves, stems and siliques in cyp72c1-1

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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  • Phenotype

All the rosette leaves were round ... shk1-D

Takahashi N, Nakazawa M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Ishikawa A, Suzuki K, Kawashima M, Ichikawa T, Shimada H, Matsui M - shk1-D, a dwarf Arabidopsis mutant caused by activation of the CYP72C1 gene, has altered brassinosteroid levels

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the adaxial side of the basal regions of the petioles of bop1-1 cotyledons showed several outgrowths

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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The petals of bop1-1 plants had some ectopic outgrowths in their proximal regions

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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bop1-1 mutation ... Mutant flowers ... had more variable numbers of ... petals

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

The first indication of the bop1-1 phenotype was recognized in 3-day-old seedlings ... the petiole of mutant cotyledon had clusters of young cells on the adaxial side

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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unlike the wild-type leaves, the midvein systems in the proximal region of the mutant rosette leaves revealed an extensive vasculature with numerous parallel vein elements

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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bop1 ... 1 ... Ectopic organogenesis was also observed on the first rosette leaf of the mutant

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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On ... rosette leaves of ... mutant plants the ectopic organs were clearly seen on the adaxial surfaces

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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the bop1-1 bp-1 double mutant exhibited ... short pedicles and downward-oriented siliques

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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bop1-1 mutation ... The leaves of the mutant exhibited extended longevity

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

ectopic outgrowths on blade-like structures were observed at the base of the cauline leaves in the mutant

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

in the bop1-1 stm-1 double mutant, rescued leaves did not fully expand and were lobed

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

the vascular system of the ectopic organs had a eustelic arrangement of vascular bundles

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

Identification of the bop1-1 mutation was based on its pronounced phenotype, i.e., the presence of ectopic organ outgrowths along the leaf petioles of rosette leaves

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 as2-2 double mutants produced numerous leaflet-like structures along the fasciated leaf petioles

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

The vegetative rosette leaves of the bop1-1 bp-1 double mutant exhibited a lobed morphology characteristic for bop1-1

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... Mutant flowers were often slightly distorted

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... The vegetative growth of mutant plants was extended compared to that of wild-type plants

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1 ... The ectopic organs ... that formed on the adaxial side of the rosette leaf resembled leaf blades with flattened structures

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

On ... cotyledons ... of 17-day-old mutant plants the ectopic organs were clearly seen on the adaxial surfaces

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

The cotyledons of bop1-1 plants had a typical venation pattern of wild-type cotyledons in the distal regions where no ectopic organogenesis was observed

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1 ... numerous ... leaf primordia were found in the proximal region of the leaf

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

the bop1-1 as1-1 ... double mutants produced numerous leaflet-like structures along the fasciated leaf petioles

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 bp-1 double mutant ... The reproductive shoot of the double mutant produced a compact inflorescence meristem

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

In contrast to wild-type petals, filamentous organs of an unidentified nature developed at the base of mutant sepals

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

The surface of the mutant stem, unlike the smooth surface of the wild-type stem (Fig. 7A), was rough in certain places along the longitudinal direction, and ectopic protrusions were evident in the areas of roughness

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... In the cotyledons ... an extended, adventitious, petiole-like organ grew out from the base of the original petiole

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... The mutant flower also contained a slightly reduced number of stamens

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... In ... the first two leaves of the mutant, an extended, adventitious, petiole-like organ grew out from the base of the original petiole

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... The petiole region of the early rosette leaves of mutants frequently fused with the basal part of the petiole of a cotyledon or adjacent leaf

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

the ectopic organ in the mutant cotyledons had more complex venation than the wild-type cotyledon

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1 ... numerous trichomes ... were found in the proximal region of the leaf

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

a pith-like structure was observed in the region surrounding the central vascular system

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

bop1-1 mutation ... Mutant flowers ... had more variable numbers of sepals

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

the vascular system of the mutant leaves had a flattened shape

Norberg M, Holmlund M, Nilsson O - The BLADE ON PETIOLE genes act redundantly to control the growth and development of lateral organs

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  • Phenotype

in bop1 bop2 ... blade development was derepressed along the petiole, resulting in the loss of distinct proximal and distal zones in the leaf

Hepworth SR, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn GW - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

For this, we crossed the bop1 bop2 double mutant with the pan-3 mutant and used PCR genotyping to identify bop1 bop2 pan-3 triple mutants in the resulting F2 population. The vegetative leaf phenotype and floral organ abscission phenotype of these triple mutants was identical to that of the bop1 bop2 parent

Hepworth SR, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn GW - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

in bop1 bop2 ... blade development was derepressed along the petiole

Hepworth SR, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn GW - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaf growth in bop1 bop2 was indeterminate along the proximal-distal leaf axis

Hepworth SR, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn GW - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

The earliest notable defect in the bop1 bop2 double mutant was in leaf morphology

Hepworth SR, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn GW - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

leaf growth in bop1 bop2 was indeterminate along the proximal-distal leaf axis, resulting in abnormally long leaves

Hepworth SR, Zhang Y, McKim S, Li X, Haughn GW - BLADE-ON-PETIOLE-dependent signaling controls leaf and floral patterning in Arabidopsis

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  • Phenotype

overexpression of ACK1 ... reduction in leaf size

Han W, Rhee HI, Cho JW, Ku MS, Song PS, Wang MH - Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACK1 alters leaf morphology and retards growth and development

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  • Phenotype

There were profound changes in the morphology of organs such as leaves ... in the transgenic plants ... overexpression of ACK1

Han W, Rhee HI, Cho JW, Ku MS, Song PS, Wang MH - Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACK1 alters leaf morphology and retards growth and development

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  • Phenotype

overexpression of ACK1 ... resulting in altered leaf margin serration

Han W, Rhee HI, Cho JW, Ku MS, Song PS, Wang MH - Overexpression of Arabidopsis ACK1 alters leaf morphology and retards growth and development

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  • Phenotype

no direct defect was observed on the cell cycle transitions or on the endocycling; therefore, the effect of the elo and drl mutations on cell division is probably not related to core cell cycle activity

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

three independent RNA interference lines of ELO3 (N3981, N3982, and N3983) in Wassilewskija (Ws-2) ecotype had leaf and root phenotypes (see below) very similar to those of the elo mutants

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

petiole ... length ... increased significantly in elo1

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

upon germination, seedling growth was delayed in all elo mutants

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

Two T-DNA ... lines ... for the ELO1 gene ... N503548 and N579793 ... displayed a narrow leaf phenotype very similar to that of the elo mutants but with incomplete penetrance

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

struwwelpeter1 (swp1) recessive mutation, which was isolated in a Ws-2 background, also causes ... with a reduced cell number

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

the distance between the nuclei, which is a direct measure of cell size (19), was significantly higher in the elo mutants

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

T-DNA allele of the AtELP3 gene ... Wassilewskija (Ws-2) ecotype had leaf and root phenotypes (see below) very similar to those of the elo mutants

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

mutants ... reduced cell number as measured by the number of palisade cells

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

total leaf length were increased significantly in ... elo2

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

Col-0 genetic background of the SALK lines suppressed to some extent the elo leaf phenotype

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

petiole ... length ... increased significantly in ... elo4/drl1-4

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

lamina ... length ... increased significantly in ... elo4/drl1-4

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

petiole ... length ... increased significantly in ... elo2

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

lamina width was smaller in all mutants

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

total leaf length were increased significantly in ... elo4/drl1-4

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

total leaf length were increased significantly in elo1

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

lamina ... length ... increased significantly in ... elo2

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

struwwelpeter1 (swp1) recessive mutation, which was isolated in a Ws-2 background, also causes narrow leaves

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

elo mutants were originally isolated as leaf mutants

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

the ploidy levels were measured by flow cytometry in the first two leaves of mutants and wild-type plants at several time points during development ... no shift ... shift in the G1-to-G2 populations could be determined at the first time points ... shift ... in Elongator mutant plants, indicating a similar effect on both the G1-to-S and G2-to-M transition points of the cell cycle

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

lamina ... increased significantly in elo1

Nelissen H, Fleury D, Bruno L, Robles P, De Veylder L, Traas J, Micol JL, Van Montagu M, Inzé D, Van Lijsebettens M - The elongata mutants identify a functional Elongator complex in plants with a role in cell proliferation during organ growth

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  • Phenotype

The tkv mutant was first identified from a mutant screen by its increased thickness of major veins in juvenile rosette leaves (Fig. 1, A and B). This phenotype was more conspicuous in adult rosette leaves, which were also smaller than those of wild type and had more veins per square area (Fig. 1, E and F

Clay NK, Nelson T - Arabidopsis thickvein mutation affects vein thickness and organ vascularization, and resides in a provascular cell-specific spermine synthase involved in vein definition and in polar auxin transport

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  • Phenotype

We found polar auxin transport in tkv stems to be 66.2% of that in wild type

Clay NK, Nelson T - Arabidopsis thickvein mutation affects vein thickne